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Electrical stimulation counteracts muscle decline in seniors.

Kern H, Barberi L, Löfler S, Sbardella S, Burggraf S, Fruhmann H, Carraro U, Mosole S, Sarabon N, Vogelauer M, Mayr W, Krenn M, Cvecka J, Romanello V, Pietrangelo L, Protasi F, Sandri M, Zampieri S, Musaro A - Front Aging Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: We analyzed, at functional, structural, and molecular level, the effects of ES training on healthy seniors with normal life style, without routine sport activity.ES also induced up-regulation of relevant markers of differentiating satellite cells and of extracellular matrix remodeling, which might guarantee shape and mechanical forces of trained skeletal muscle as well as maintenance of satellite cell function, reducing fibrosis.Our data provide evidence that ES is a safe method to counteract muscle decline associated with aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wilhelminenspital , Vienna , Austria ; Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Electrical Stimulation and Physical Rehabilitation , Vienna , Austria.

ABSTRACT
The loss in muscle mass coupled with a decrease in specific force and shift in fiber composition are hallmarks of aging. Training and regular exercise attenuate the signs of sarcopenia. However, pathologic conditions limit the ability to perform physical exercise. We addressed whether electrical stimulation (ES) is an alternative intervention to improve muscle recovery and defined the molecular mechanism associated with improvement in muscle structure and function. We analyzed, at functional, structural, and molecular level, the effects of ES training on healthy seniors with normal life style, without routine sport activity. ES was able to improve muscle torque and functional performances of seniors and increased the size of fast muscle fibers. At molecular level, ES induced up-regulation of IGF-1 and modulation of MuRF-1, a muscle-specific atrophy-related gene. ES also induced up-regulation of relevant markers of differentiating satellite cells and of extracellular matrix remodeling, which might guarantee shape and mechanical forces of trained skeletal muscle as well as maintenance of satellite cell function, reducing fibrosis. Our data provide evidence that ES is a safe method to counteract muscle decline associated with aging.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Electrical stimulation induces an increase of satellite cells. (A) Representative immunofluorescence analysis for N-CAM expression (red stained, arrowed). N-CAM expressing cells are increased in post-trained muscle compared with the pre-training condition. Nuclei are counterstained in blue with Hoechst. Bar 100 μm. (B) Representative co-immunofluorescence analyses of laminin (red staining) and Pax7 (green staining) expression in skeletal muscle biopsies comparing pre- to post-training conditions. The number of Pax7 positive cells (arrowed) is increased in biopsies of post-trained subjects, compared to the pre-training ones. Bar 100 μm. Right panel: percentage of Pax7+ cells in pre-trained and post-ES-trained muscles. Data are represented as average ± SD. ***p < 0.0001. (C) Real time PCR analysis for myogenin, miR-206, and miR-1 expression in pre-trained (PRE) and post-ES-trained (POST) muscles. Data are represented as average ± SEM. n = 16. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.005.
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Figure 2: Electrical stimulation induces an increase of satellite cells. (A) Representative immunofluorescence analysis for N-CAM expression (red stained, arrowed). N-CAM expressing cells are increased in post-trained muscle compared with the pre-training condition. Nuclei are counterstained in blue with Hoechst. Bar 100 μm. (B) Representative co-immunofluorescence analyses of laminin (red staining) and Pax7 (green staining) expression in skeletal muscle biopsies comparing pre- to post-training conditions. The number of Pax7 positive cells (arrowed) is increased in biopsies of post-trained subjects, compared to the pre-training ones. Bar 100 μm. Right panel: percentage of Pax7+ cells in pre-trained and post-ES-trained muscles. Data are represented as average ± SD. ***p < 0.0001. (C) Real time PCR analysis for myogenin, miR-206, and miR-1 expression in pre-trained (PRE) and post-ES-trained (POST) muscles. Data are represented as average ± SEM. n = 16. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.005.

Mentions: To verify whether ES promotes a similar response of exercise, we analyzed the expression of relevant molecular markers of activated and committed satellite cells such as N-CAM, Pax7, and myogenin (Carosio et al., 2011). Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that ES induced a significant increase in the percentage of N-CAM (Figure 2A) and Pax7 (Figure 2B left and right panels) expressing cells, along with a significant increase in myogenin expression, analyzed by RT-PCR analysis (Figure 2C). Recent studies have shown that muscle cell proliferation and differentiation are mediated by a collection of muscle-specific miRNAs (van Rooij et al., 2008). miR-206 is expressed in early phases of differentiation, whereas the expression of miR-1 is a marker of terminal differentiation and controls the expression of relevant enzymes in the response to oxidative stress (Chen et al., 2006; Rao et al., 2006; Cacchiarelli et al., 2010). Real time PCR analysis (Figure 2C) revealed a significant up-regulation of miR-206 and an increase of miR-1 expression in ES stimulated muscle compared to control muscle.


Electrical stimulation counteracts muscle decline in seniors.

Kern H, Barberi L, Löfler S, Sbardella S, Burggraf S, Fruhmann H, Carraro U, Mosole S, Sarabon N, Vogelauer M, Mayr W, Krenn M, Cvecka J, Romanello V, Pietrangelo L, Protasi F, Sandri M, Zampieri S, Musaro A - Front Aging Neurosci (2014)

Electrical stimulation induces an increase of satellite cells. (A) Representative immunofluorescence analysis for N-CAM expression (red stained, arrowed). N-CAM expressing cells are increased in post-trained muscle compared with the pre-training condition. Nuclei are counterstained in blue with Hoechst. Bar 100 μm. (B) Representative co-immunofluorescence analyses of laminin (red staining) and Pax7 (green staining) expression in skeletal muscle biopsies comparing pre- to post-training conditions. The number of Pax7 positive cells (arrowed) is increased in biopsies of post-trained subjects, compared to the pre-training ones. Bar 100 μm. Right panel: percentage of Pax7+ cells in pre-trained and post-ES-trained muscles. Data are represented as average ± SD. ***p < 0.0001. (C) Real time PCR analysis for myogenin, miR-206, and miR-1 expression in pre-trained (PRE) and post-ES-trained (POST) muscles. Data are represented as average ± SEM. n = 16. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.005.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 2: Electrical stimulation induces an increase of satellite cells. (A) Representative immunofluorescence analysis for N-CAM expression (red stained, arrowed). N-CAM expressing cells are increased in post-trained muscle compared with the pre-training condition. Nuclei are counterstained in blue with Hoechst. Bar 100 μm. (B) Representative co-immunofluorescence analyses of laminin (red staining) and Pax7 (green staining) expression in skeletal muscle biopsies comparing pre- to post-training conditions. The number of Pax7 positive cells (arrowed) is increased in biopsies of post-trained subjects, compared to the pre-training ones. Bar 100 μm. Right panel: percentage of Pax7+ cells in pre-trained and post-ES-trained muscles. Data are represented as average ± SD. ***p < 0.0001. (C) Real time PCR analysis for myogenin, miR-206, and miR-1 expression in pre-trained (PRE) and post-ES-trained (POST) muscles. Data are represented as average ± SEM. n = 16. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.005.
Mentions: To verify whether ES promotes a similar response of exercise, we analyzed the expression of relevant molecular markers of activated and committed satellite cells such as N-CAM, Pax7, and myogenin (Carosio et al., 2011). Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that ES induced a significant increase in the percentage of N-CAM (Figure 2A) and Pax7 (Figure 2B left and right panels) expressing cells, along with a significant increase in myogenin expression, analyzed by RT-PCR analysis (Figure 2C). Recent studies have shown that muscle cell proliferation and differentiation are mediated by a collection of muscle-specific miRNAs (van Rooij et al., 2008). miR-206 is expressed in early phases of differentiation, whereas the expression of miR-1 is a marker of terminal differentiation and controls the expression of relevant enzymes in the response to oxidative stress (Chen et al., 2006; Rao et al., 2006; Cacchiarelli et al., 2010). Real time PCR analysis (Figure 2C) revealed a significant up-regulation of miR-206 and an increase of miR-1 expression in ES stimulated muscle compared to control muscle.

Bottom Line: We analyzed, at functional, structural, and molecular level, the effects of ES training on healthy seniors with normal life style, without routine sport activity.ES also induced up-regulation of relevant markers of differentiating satellite cells and of extracellular matrix remodeling, which might guarantee shape and mechanical forces of trained skeletal muscle as well as maintenance of satellite cell function, reducing fibrosis.Our data provide evidence that ES is a safe method to counteract muscle decline associated with aging.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wilhelminenspital , Vienna , Austria ; Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Electrical Stimulation and Physical Rehabilitation , Vienna , Austria.

ABSTRACT
The loss in muscle mass coupled with a decrease in specific force and shift in fiber composition are hallmarks of aging. Training and regular exercise attenuate the signs of sarcopenia. However, pathologic conditions limit the ability to perform physical exercise. We addressed whether electrical stimulation (ES) is an alternative intervention to improve muscle recovery and defined the molecular mechanism associated with improvement in muscle structure and function. We analyzed, at functional, structural, and molecular level, the effects of ES training on healthy seniors with normal life style, without routine sport activity. ES was able to improve muscle torque and functional performances of seniors and increased the size of fast muscle fibers. At molecular level, ES induced up-regulation of IGF-1 and modulation of MuRF-1, a muscle-specific atrophy-related gene. ES also induced up-regulation of relevant markers of differentiating satellite cells and of extracellular matrix remodeling, which might guarantee shape and mechanical forces of trained skeletal muscle as well as maintenance of satellite cell function, reducing fibrosis. Our data provide evidence that ES is a safe method to counteract muscle decline associated with aging.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus