Limits...
Slow cortical potential and theta/beta neurofeedback training in adults: effects on attentional processes and motor system excitability.

Studer P, Kratz O, Gevensleben H, Rothenberger A, Moll GH, Hautzinger M, Heinrich H - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: However, due to the limited sample size medium effects did not reach the level of significance.Overall, our results are limited by the non-sufficiently acquired self-regulation skills, but some specific effects between good and poor learners could be described.Future studies with larger sample sizes and sufficient acquisition of self-regulation skills are needed to further evaluate the protocol-specific effects on attention and motor system excitability reported.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University Hospital of Erlangen Erlangen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Neurofeedback (NF) is being successfully applied, among others, in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as a peak performance training in healthy subjects. However, the neuronal mechanisms mediating a successful NF training have not yet been sufficiently uncovered for both theta/beta (T/B), and slow cortical potential (SCP) training, two protocols established in NF in ADHD. In the present, randomized, controlled investigation in adults without a clinical diagnosis (n = 59), the specificity of the effects of these two NF protocols on attentional processes and motor system excitability were to be examined, focusing on the underlying neuronal mechanisms. Neurofeedback training consisted of 10 double sessions, and self-regulation skills were analyzed. Pre- and post-training assessments encompassed performance and event-related potential measures during an attention task, and motor system excitability assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some NF protocol-specific effects have been obtained. However, due to the limited sample size medium effects did not reach the level of significance. Self-regulation abilities during negativity trials of the SCP training were associated with increased contingent negative variation amplitudes, indicating improved resource allocation during cognitive preparation. Theta/beta training was associated with increased response speed and decreased target-P3 amplitudes after successful theta/beta regulation suggested reduced attentional resources necessary for stimulus evaluation. Motor system excitability effects after theta/beta training paralleled the effects of methylphenidate. Overall, our results are limited by the non-sufficiently acquired self-regulation skills, but some specific effects between good and poor learners could be described. Future studies with larger sample sizes and sufficient acquisition of self-regulation skills are needed to further evaluate the protocol-specific effects on attention and motor system excitability reported.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

ERPs during the ANT. (A) Grand average ERPs (at Cz) during the preparation phase in the ANT at pre-testing are depicted exemplary for SpatialCue trials (averaged over the NoStress and WithStress conditions) for each training group (theta/beta: blue line, SCP: green line, control: black line). At -1400 ms a cue was presented, flanking fish appeared at -100 ms, and the target fish appeared at 0 ms. Contingent negative variation was determined as the mean area between -400 and -100 ms. Spline-interpolated maps illustrate the topography of the CNV exemplary for the SCP group, with blue and red colors indicating negative and positive amplitude values, respectively in a range from -4 to 4 μV. (B) Grand average ERPs (at Cz) during the preparation phase in the ANT at post-testing. (C) Grand average ERPs (at Pz) during target processing in the ANT at pre-testing are depicted exemplary for SpatialCue trials (averaged over the NoStress and WithStress conditions) for each training group (theta/beta: blue line, SCP: green line, Control: black line). At 0 ms, the target fish appeared. P3 amplitude was determined as the most positive peak at Pz in the time window 280–450 ms after target presentation. Spline-interpolated maps illustrate the topography of the P3 exemplary for the SCP group, with blue and red colors indicating negative and positive amplitude values, respectively in a range from -8 to 6 μV. (D) Grand average ERPs (at Pz) during target processing in the ANT at post-testing. SCP, slow cortical potential training group; CNV, contingent negative variation; ANT, Attention Network Test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109432&req=5

Figure 2: ERPs during the ANT. (A) Grand average ERPs (at Cz) during the preparation phase in the ANT at pre-testing are depicted exemplary for SpatialCue trials (averaged over the NoStress and WithStress conditions) for each training group (theta/beta: blue line, SCP: green line, control: black line). At -1400 ms a cue was presented, flanking fish appeared at -100 ms, and the target fish appeared at 0 ms. Contingent negative variation was determined as the mean area between -400 and -100 ms. Spline-interpolated maps illustrate the topography of the CNV exemplary for the SCP group, with blue and red colors indicating negative and positive amplitude values, respectively in a range from -4 to 4 μV. (B) Grand average ERPs (at Cz) during the preparation phase in the ANT at post-testing. (C) Grand average ERPs (at Pz) during target processing in the ANT at pre-testing are depicted exemplary for SpatialCue trials (averaged over the NoStress and WithStress conditions) for each training group (theta/beta: blue line, SCP: green line, Control: black line). At 0 ms, the target fish appeared. P3 amplitude was determined as the most positive peak at Pz in the time window 280–450 ms after target presentation. Spline-interpolated maps illustrate the topography of the P3 exemplary for the SCP group, with blue and red colors indicating negative and positive amplitude values, respectively in a range from -8 to 6 μV. (D) Grand average ERPs (at Pz) during target processing in the ANT at post-testing. SCP, slow cortical potential training group; CNV, contingent negative variation; ANT, Attention Network Test.

Mentions: Grand average ERPs during the preparation phase of the ANT are depicted in Figures 2A,B. A significant interaction of TIME and GROUP was obtained [F(2,42) = 3.89, p < 0.05] indicating that type of training differentially affected attentional processing during anticipation as measured by CNV amplitudes during the ANT. This effect was related to a pre–post increase in CNV amplitude in both NF groups and a decrease in the control group. Effect size measures revealed medium to large effects for the T/B vs. CON and for the SCP vs. CON group, but no effect for the SCP vs. T/B group (see Table 3).


Slow cortical potential and theta/beta neurofeedback training in adults: effects on attentional processes and motor system excitability.

Studer P, Kratz O, Gevensleben H, Rothenberger A, Moll GH, Hautzinger M, Heinrich H - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

ERPs during the ANT. (A) Grand average ERPs (at Cz) during the preparation phase in the ANT at pre-testing are depicted exemplary for SpatialCue trials (averaged over the NoStress and WithStress conditions) for each training group (theta/beta: blue line, SCP: green line, control: black line). At -1400 ms a cue was presented, flanking fish appeared at -100 ms, and the target fish appeared at 0 ms. Contingent negative variation was determined as the mean area between -400 and -100 ms. Spline-interpolated maps illustrate the topography of the CNV exemplary for the SCP group, with blue and red colors indicating negative and positive amplitude values, respectively in a range from -4 to 4 μV. (B) Grand average ERPs (at Cz) during the preparation phase in the ANT at post-testing. (C) Grand average ERPs (at Pz) during target processing in the ANT at pre-testing are depicted exemplary for SpatialCue trials (averaged over the NoStress and WithStress conditions) for each training group (theta/beta: blue line, SCP: green line, Control: black line). At 0 ms, the target fish appeared. P3 amplitude was determined as the most positive peak at Pz in the time window 280–450 ms after target presentation. Spline-interpolated maps illustrate the topography of the P3 exemplary for the SCP group, with blue and red colors indicating negative and positive amplitude values, respectively in a range from -8 to 6 μV. (D) Grand average ERPs (at Pz) during target processing in the ANT at post-testing. SCP, slow cortical potential training group; CNV, contingent negative variation; ANT, Attention Network Test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109432&req=5

Figure 2: ERPs during the ANT. (A) Grand average ERPs (at Cz) during the preparation phase in the ANT at pre-testing are depicted exemplary for SpatialCue trials (averaged over the NoStress and WithStress conditions) for each training group (theta/beta: blue line, SCP: green line, control: black line). At -1400 ms a cue was presented, flanking fish appeared at -100 ms, and the target fish appeared at 0 ms. Contingent negative variation was determined as the mean area between -400 and -100 ms. Spline-interpolated maps illustrate the topography of the CNV exemplary for the SCP group, with blue and red colors indicating negative and positive amplitude values, respectively in a range from -4 to 4 μV. (B) Grand average ERPs (at Cz) during the preparation phase in the ANT at post-testing. (C) Grand average ERPs (at Pz) during target processing in the ANT at pre-testing are depicted exemplary for SpatialCue trials (averaged over the NoStress and WithStress conditions) for each training group (theta/beta: blue line, SCP: green line, Control: black line). At 0 ms, the target fish appeared. P3 amplitude was determined as the most positive peak at Pz in the time window 280–450 ms after target presentation. Spline-interpolated maps illustrate the topography of the P3 exemplary for the SCP group, with blue and red colors indicating negative and positive amplitude values, respectively in a range from -8 to 6 μV. (D) Grand average ERPs (at Pz) during target processing in the ANT at post-testing. SCP, slow cortical potential training group; CNV, contingent negative variation; ANT, Attention Network Test.
Mentions: Grand average ERPs during the preparation phase of the ANT are depicted in Figures 2A,B. A significant interaction of TIME and GROUP was obtained [F(2,42) = 3.89, p < 0.05] indicating that type of training differentially affected attentional processing during anticipation as measured by CNV amplitudes during the ANT. This effect was related to a pre–post increase in CNV amplitude in both NF groups and a decrease in the control group. Effect size measures revealed medium to large effects for the T/B vs. CON and for the SCP vs. CON group, but no effect for the SCP vs. T/B group (see Table 3).

Bottom Line: However, due to the limited sample size medium effects did not reach the level of significance.Overall, our results are limited by the non-sufficiently acquired self-regulation skills, but some specific effects between good and poor learners could be described.Future studies with larger sample sizes and sufficient acquisition of self-regulation skills are needed to further evaluate the protocol-specific effects on attention and motor system excitability reported.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, University Hospital of Erlangen Erlangen, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Neurofeedback (NF) is being successfully applied, among others, in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as a peak performance training in healthy subjects. However, the neuronal mechanisms mediating a successful NF training have not yet been sufficiently uncovered for both theta/beta (T/B), and slow cortical potential (SCP) training, two protocols established in NF in ADHD. In the present, randomized, controlled investigation in adults without a clinical diagnosis (n = 59), the specificity of the effects of these two NF protocols on attentional processes and motor system excitability were to be examined, focusing on the underlying neuronal mechanisms. Neurofeedback training consisted of 10 double sessions, and self-regulation skills were analyzed. Pre- and post-training assessments encompassed performance and event-related potential measures during an attention task, and motor system excitability assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some NF protocol-specific effects have been obtained. However, due to the limited sample size medium effects did not reach the level of significance. Self-regulation abilities during negativity trials of the SCP training were associated with increased contingent negative variation amplitudes, indicating improved resource allocation during cognitive preparation. Theta/beta training was associated with increased response speed and decreased target-P3 amplitudes after successful theta/beta regulation suggested reduced attentional resources necessary for stimulus evaluation. Motor system excitability effects after theta/beta training paralleled the effects of methylphenidate. Overall, our results are limited by the non-sufficiently acquired self-regulation skills, but some specific effects between good and poor learners could be described. Future studies with larger sample sizes and sufficient acquisition of self-regulation skills are needed to further evaluate the protocol-specific effects on attention and motor system excitability reported.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus