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Feasibility study of a hand guided robotic drill for cochleostomy.

Brett P, Du X, Zoka-Assadi M, Coulson C, Reid A, Proops D - Biomed Res Int (2014)

Bottom Line: The device operates with differing presentation of tissues resulting from variation in anatomy and demonstrates the ability to control or avoid penetration of tissue layers as required and to respond to intended rather than involuntary motion of the surgeon operator.The advantage of hand guided over an arm supported system is that it offers flexibility in adjusting the drilling trajectory.This can be important to initiate cutting on a hard convex tissue surface without slipping and then to proceed on the desired trajectory after cutting has commenced.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Brunel Institute for Bioengineering, Brunel University, London UB8 3PH, UK.

ABSTRACT
The concept of a hand guided robotic drill has been inspired by an automated, arm supported robotic drill recently applied in clinical practice to produce cochleostomies without penetrating the endosteum ready for inserting cochlear electrodes. The smart tactile sensing scheme within the drill enables precise control of the state of interaction between tissues and tools in real-time. This paper reports development studies of the hand guided robotic drill where the same consistent outcomes, augmentation of surgeon control and skill, and similar reduction of induced disturbances on the hearing organ are achieved. The device operates with differing presentation of tissues resulting from variation in anatomy and demonstrates the ability to control or avoid penetration of tissue layers as required and to respond to intended rather than involuntary motion of the surgeon operator. The advantage of hand guided over an arm supported system is that it offers flexibility in adjusting the drilling trajectory. This can be important to initiate cutting on a hard convex tissue surface without slipping and then to proceed on the desired trajectory after cutting has commenced. The results for trials on phantoms show that drill unit compliance is an important factor in the design.

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The hand guided robotic drill unit.
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fig7: The hand guided robotic drill unit.

Mentions: The drill unit comprises drill bit rotation drive and sensing elements and is shown in Figure 7. Standard drill bits are readily changed using the chuck. Feed force is measured by a displacement sensor and torque is measured using drive current of the DC motor. The control unit has a two-tier hierarchy: servo level and high-level controllers. The servo controls the rotation drive of the drill at 40 Hz and communicates with the PC through ethernet connection. The high-level controller responds to key stages and states of the drilling process by selecting predefined strategies. The selection is based on the interpreted state of the drilling process where the high-level controller discriminates characteristics in the coupled sensory transients indicating the onset of breakthrough. All control system and sensory functions operate in hardware. Progress of the procedure is relayed to the clinician on the screen. The drilling process is also indicated by the LEDs on the control unit. The drill will stop rotating when the cochleostomy is complete. The LED bars on the control unit indicate contacting force level between the drill bit and tissue and provide indication to the operator on the most suitable feed force range for the task. This arrangement for the bars works well in experimental trials and demonstrates a useful principle for practice.


Feasibility study of a hand guided robotic drill for cochleostomy.

Brett P, Du X, Zoka-Assadi M, Coulson C, Reid A, Proops D - Biomed Res Int (2014)

The hand guided robotic drill unit.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109386&req=5

fig7: The hand guided robotic drill unit.
Mentions: The drill unit comprises drill bit rotation drive and sensing elements and is shown in Figure 7. Standard drill bits are readily changed using the chuck. Feed force is measured by a displacement sensor and torque is measured using drive current of the DC motor. The control unit has a two-tier hierarchy: servo level and high-level controllers. The servo controls the rotation drive of the drill at 40 Hz and communicates with the PC through ethernet connection. The high-level controller responds to key stages and states of the drilling process by selecting predefined strategies. The selection is based on the interpreted state of the drilling process where the high-level controller discriminates characteristics in the coupled sensory transients indicating the onset of breakthrough. All control system and sensory functions operate in hardware. Progress of the procedure is relayed to the clinician on the screen. The drilling process is also indicated by the LEDs on the control unit. The drill will stop rotating when the cochleostomy is complete. The LED bars on the control unit indicate contacting force level between the drill bit and tissue and provide indication to the operator on the most suitable feed force range for the task. This arrangement for the bars works well in experimental trials and demonstrates a useful principle for practice.

Bottom Line: The device operates with differing presentation of tissues resulting from variation in anatomy and demonstrates the ability to control or avoid penetration of tissue layers as required and to respond to intended rather than involuntary motion of the surgeon operator.The advantage of hand guided over an arm supported system is that it offers flexibility in adjusting the drilling trajectory.This can be important to initiate cutting on a hard convex tissue surface without slipping and then to proceed on the desired trajectory after cutting has commenced.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Brunel Institute for Bioengineering, Brunel University, London UB8 3PH, UK.

ABSTRACT
The concept of a hand guided robotic drill has been inspired by an automated, arm supported robotic drill recently applied in clinical practice to produce cochleostomies without penetrating the endosteum ready for inserting cochlear electrodes. The smart tactile sensing scheme within the drill enables precise control of the state of interaction between tissues and tools in real-time. This paper reports development studies of the hand guided robotic drill where the same consistent outcomes, augmentation of surgeon control and skill, and similar reduction of induced disturbances on the hearing organ are achieved. The device operates with differing presentation of tissues resulting from variation in anatomy and demonstrates the ability to control or avoid penetration of tissue layers as required and to respond to intended rather than involuntary motion of the surgeon operator. The advantage of hand guided over an arm supported system is that it offers flexibility in adjusting the drilling trajectory. This can be important to initiate cutting on a hard convex tissue surface without slipping and then to proceed on the desired trajectory after cutting has commenced. The results for trials on phantoms show that drill unit compliance is an important factor in the design.

Show MeSH