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Long-term assessment of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation project: case study on Carey Island, Malaysia.

Motamedi S, Hashim R, Zakaria R, Song KI, Sofawi B - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques.The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings.As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Observed elevation of sea bed level from December 2008 until January 2013 at the site.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig6: Observed elevation of sea bed level from December 2008 until January 2013 at the site.

Mentions: Figure 6 shows the variation of elevation from July 2008 to January 2013. About four years into the project, the elevation of a cross-section along axis S5 in Figure 5 had increased considerably. For example, one month after construction, the elevation at the toe of the breakwater system rose from 0.2 m to 0.45 m. After 12 months, it increased nearly 125%. In the same way, the data collected in 2008 indicate that the elevation of the soil stratum at a distance of 30 m from the shoreline was about 0.5 m, and as of January 2013, it had increased to 1.2 m. The elevation was about 1.9 m near the coastal dike at a distance of 10 m from the shoreline in 2008. The elevation at the same location reached 2.2 m in January 2010. Finally, in January 2013, the elevation leveled at 2.4 m. The sediment deposition trend is more noticeable near the breakwater than near the shoreline. Based on the positive trend of growth in the seabed level over time, we can conclude that the elevation of a cross section of the beach is increasing.


Long-term assessment of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation project: case study on Carey Island, Malaysia.

Motamedi S, Hashim R, Zakaria R, Song KI, Sofawi B - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Observed elevation of sea bed level from December 2008 until January 2013 at the site.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109262&req=5

fig6: Observed elevation of sea bed level from December 2008 until January 2013 at the site.
Mentions: Figure 6 shows the variation of elevation from July 2008 to January 2013. About four years into the project, the elevation of a cross-section along axis S5 in Figure 5 had increased considerably. For example, one month after construction, the elevation at the toe of the breakwater system rose from 0.2 m to 0.45 m. After 12 months, it increased nearly 125%. In the same way, the data collected in 2008 indicate that the elevation of the soil stratum at a distance of 30 m from the shoreline was about 0.5 m, and as of January 2013, it had increased to 1.2 m. The elevation was about 1.9 m near the coastal dike at a distance of 10 m from the shoreline in 2008. The elevation at the same location reached 2.2 m in January 2010. Finally, in January 2013, the elevation leveled at 2.4 m. The sediment deposition trend is more noticeable near the breakwater than near the shoreline. Based on the positive trend of growth in the seabed level over time, we can conclude that the elevation of a cross section of the beach is increasing.

Bottom Line: Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques.The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings.As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus