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Long-term assessment of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation project: case study on Carey Island, Malaysia.

Motamedi S, Hashim R, Zakaria R, Song KI, Sofawi B - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques.The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings.As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.

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Loss of “Rhizophora apiculata” mangrove forests at the site before the project is carried out in early 2008.
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fig2: Loss of “Rhizophora apiculata” mangrove forests at the site before the project is carried out in early 2008.

Mentions: The clayey beach of Carey Island has been a natural residence for mangrove trees for centuries. Since 1950, large areas of mangrove forest have been converted to agricultural areas based on long-term national plans. During the 1970s, a coastal line-stretched dike was erected to shelter the agricultural land in the higher area of the Carey Island coast. Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID), Malaysia, built hundreds of kilometers of these coastal dikes nationwide to protect agricultural lands from tidal inundation and massive wave energy induced by storms [20]. The environmental value of mangrove forests, however, was ignored in this era, and the negative consequence was the massive retreat of mangrove trees observed over the last two decades (Figure 2).


Long-term assessment of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation project: case study on Carey Island, Malaysia.

Motamedi S, Hashim R, Zakaria R, Song KI, Sofawi B - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Loss of “Rhizophora apiculata” mangrove forests at the site before the project is carried out in early 2008.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109262&req=5

fig2: Loss of “Rhizophora apiculata” mangrove forests at the site before the project is carried out in early 2008.
Mentions: The clayey beach of Carey Island has been a natural residence for mangrove trees for centuries. Since 1950, large areas of mangrove forest have been converted to agricultural areas based on long-term national plans. During the 1970s, a coastal line-stretched dike was erected to shelter the agricultural land in the higher area of the Carey Island coast. Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID), Malaysia, built hundreds of kilometers of these coastal dikes nationwide to protect agricultural lands from tidal inundation and massive wave energy induced by storms [20]. The environmental value of mangrove forests, however, was ignored in this era, and the negative consequence was the massive retreat of mangrove trees observed over the last two decades (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques.The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings.As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Wave energy and storm surges threaten coastal ecology and nearshore infrastructures. Although coastal structures are conventionally constructed to dampen the wave energy, they introduce tremendous damage to the ecology of the coast. To minimize environmental impact, ecofriendly coastal protection schemes should be introduced. In this paper, we discuss an example of an innovative mangrove rehabilitation attempt to restore the endangered mangroves on Carey Island, Malaysia. A submerged detached breakwater system was constructed to dampen the energy of wave and trap the sediments behind the structure. Further, a large number of mangrove seedlings were planted using different techniques. Further, we assess the possibility of success for a future mangrove rehabilitation project at the site in the context of sedimentology, bathymetry, and hydrogeochemistry. The assessment showed an increase in the amount of silt and clay, and the seabed was noticeably elevated. The nutrient concentration, the pH value, and the salinity index demonstrate that the site is conducive in establishing mangrove seedlings. As a result, we conclude that the site is now ready for attempts to rehabilitate the lost mangrove forest.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus