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Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes.

Linton YM, Pecor JE, Porter CH, Mitchell LB, Garzón-Moreno A, Foley DH, Pecor DB, Wilkerson RC - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2013)

Bottom Line: A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted.DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future.An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n=179) is presented for the first time in 60 years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Entomology Branch, USA, Silver SpringMD, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Entomology Branch, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

ABSTRACT
Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase (COI) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n=179) is presented for the first time in 60 years.

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bootstrap consensus tree of cytochrome c oxidase sequences (n = 58)inferred using the neighbour-joining method of Saitou and Nei (1987). Thebootstrap consensus tree was inferred from 5,000 replicates ( Felsenstein 1985 ). Branches correspondingto partitions reproduced in less than 50% of replicates are collapsed.Percentage of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered togetherin the bootstrap test is shown next to the branches. Evolutionary distanceswere calculated using Kimura two-parameter distance algorithm ( Kimura 1980 ). Scale bar representssequence (%) divergence between samples. The final dataset comprised 658nucleotides, including all codon positions. Analysis was carried out in MEGA5 (Tamura et al. 2011 ).
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f01: bootstrap consensus tree of cytochrome c oxidase sequences (n = 58)inferred using the neighbour-joining method of Saitou and Nei (1987). Thebootstrap consensus tree was inferred from 5,000 replicates ( Felsenstein 1985 ). Branches correspondingto partitions reproduced in less than 50% of replicates are collapsed.Percentage of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered togetherin the bootstrap test is shown next to the branches. Evolutionary distanceswere calculated using Kimura two-parameter distance algorithm ( Kimura 1980 ). Scale bar representssequence (%) divergence between samples. The final dataset comprised 658nucleotides, including all codon positions. Analysis was carried out in MEGA5 (Tamura et al. 2011 ).

Mentions: Tribe Toxorhynchitini - Toxorhynchites : Two speciesof the Toxorhynchites subgenus Lynchiella wereidentified: Tx. (Lyn.) bambusicola and Tx. (Lyn.)haemorrhoidalis . The three link-reared specimens of Tx. (Lyn.)bambusicola reported here were collected in three separate collections(EC197, EC203, EC254) and these comprise a new country record for Ecuador (Fig. S1, Supplementary data 1). Only one DNA barcodewas determined for an undetermined species of Toxorhynchites (asToxorhynchites sp. TIP1 in Figure ). This sequence was most similar (87.7%) to the published sequence ofTx. (Tox.) splendens (HQ398877).


Mosquitoes of eastern Amazonian Ecuador: biodiversity, bionomics and barcodes.

Linton YM, Pecor JE, Porter CH, Mitchell LB, Garzón-Moreno A, Foley DH, Pecor DB, Wilkerson RC - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2013)

bootstrap consensus tree of cytochrome c oxidase sequences (n = 58)inferred using the neighbour-joining method of Saitou and Nei (1987). Thebootstrap consensus tree was inferred from 5,000 replicates ( Felsenstein 1985 ). Branches correspondingto partitions reproduced in less than 50% of replicates are collapsed.Percentage of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered togetherin the bootstrap test is shown next to the branches. Evolutionary distanceswere calculated using Kimura two-parameter distance algorithm ( Kimura 1980 ). Scale bar representssequence (%) divergence between samples. The final dataset comprised 658nucleotides, including all codon positions. Analysis was carried out in MEGA5 (Tamura et al. 2011 ).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109186&req=5

f01: bootstrap consensus tree of cytochrome c oxidase sequences (n = 58)inferred using the neighbour-joining method of Saitou and Nei (1987). Thebootstrap consensus tree was inferred from 5,000 replicates ( Felsenstein 1985 ). Branches correspondingto partitions reproduced in less than 50% of replicates are collapsed.Percentage of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered togetherin the bootstrap test is shown next to the branches. Evolutionary distanceswere calculated using Kimura two-parameter distance algorithm ( Kimura 1980 ). Scale bar representssequence (%) divergence between samples. The final dataset comprised 658nucleotides, including all codon positions. Analysis was carried out in MEGA5 (Tamura et al. 2011 ).
Mentions: Tribe Toxorhynchitini - Toxorhynchites : Two speciesof the Toxorhynchites subgenus Lynchiella wereidentified: Tx. (Lyn.) bambusicola and Tx. (Lyn.)haemorrhoidalis . The three link-reared specimens of Tx. (Lyn.)bambusicola reported here were collected in three separate collections(EC197, EC203, EC254) and these comprise a new country record for Ecuador (Fig. S1, Supplementary data 1). Only one DNA barcodewas determined for an undetermined species of Toxorhynchites (asToxorhynchites sp. TIP1 in Figure ). This sequence was most similar (87.7%) to the published sequence ofTx. (Tox.) splendens (HQ398877).

Bottom Line: A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted.DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future.An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n=179) is presented for the first time in 60 years.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Entomology Branch, USA, Silver SpringMD, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Entomology Branch, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

ABSTRACT
Two snapshot surveys to establish the diversity and ecological preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the terra firme primary rain forest surrounding the Tiputini Biodiversity Station in the UNESCO Yasuní Biosphere Reserve of eastern Amazonian Ecuador were carried out in November 1998 and May 1999. The mosquito fauna of this region is poorly known; the focus of this study was to obtain high quality link-reared specimens that could be used to unequivocally confirm species level diversity through integrated systematic study of all life stages and DNA sequences. A total of 2,284 specimens were preserved; 1,671 specimens were link-reared with associated immature exuviae, all but 108 of which are slide mounted. This study identified 68 unique taxa belonging to 17 genera and 27 subgenera. Of these, 12 are new to science and 37 comprise new country records. DNA barcodes [658-bp of the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase (COI) I gene] are presented for 58 individuals representing 20 species and nine genera. DNA barcoding proved useful in uncovering and confirming new species and we advocate an integrated systematics approach to biodiversity studies in future. Associated bionomics of all species collected are discussed. An updated systematic checklist of the mosquitoes of Ecuador (n=179) is presented for the first time in 60 years.

Show MeSH