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Genetic basis of triatomine behavior: lessons from available insect genomes.

Latorre-Estivalis JM, Lazzari CR, Guarneri AA, Mota T, Omondi BA, Lorenzo MG - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2013)

Bottom Line: This, together with the current characterisation of the genome sequence of Rhodnius prolixus allows the resurgence of this excellent insect physiology model in the omics era.In the present revision, we suggest that studying the molecular basis of behaviour and sensory ecology in triatomines will promote a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of insect and, particularly, vector biology.This will allow uncovering unknown features of essential insect physiology questions for a hemimetabolous model organism, promoting more robust comparative studies of insect sensory function and cognition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fiocruz, Brasil, Belo HorizonteMG, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou-Fiocruz, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Triatomines have been important model organisms for behavioural research. Diverse reports about triatomine host search, pheromone communication in the sexual, shelter and alarm contexts, daily cycles of activity, refuge choice and behavioural plasticity have been published in the last two decades. In recent times, a variety of molecular genetics techniques has allowed researchers to investigate elaborate and complex questions about the genetic bases of the physiology of insects. This, together with the current characterisation of the genome sequence of Rhodnius prolixus allows the resurgence of this excellent insect physiology model in the omics era. In the present revision, we suggest that studying the molecular basis of behaviour and sensory ecology in triatomines will promote a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of insect and, particularly, vector biology. This will allow uncovering unknown features of essential insect physiology questions for a hemimetabolous model organism, promoting more robust comparative studies of insect sensory function and cognition.

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Workflow scheme for the study of functional genetics underlying triatominebehaviour. EAG: electroantennogram; FISH: fluorescence in situhybridisation; IHC: immunohistochemistry; NGS: next-generation sequencing; qPCR:quantitative polymerase chain reaction; RT: reverse transcription; SSR: singlesensillum recording.
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f01: Workflow scheme for the study of functional genetics underlying triatominebehaviour. EAG: electroantennogram; FISH: fluorescence in situhybridisation; IHC: immunohistochemistry; NGS: next-generation sequencing; qPCR:quantitative polymerase chain reaction; RT: reverse transcription; SSR: singlesensillum recording.

Mentions: The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), gene expression/regulation techniques and heterologous expression systems inthe post-genomic era - Many insect genomes have been sequenced to date, forminga rich source of appropriate orthologues of behaviour controlling genes to initiatesearches in the Rhodnius prolixus genome. Particularly, the genome of thepea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum represents one of the best candidates forguiding BLAST searches due to their closer phylogenetic relation ( The International Aphid Genomics Consortium 2010 ). This will be morerelevant whenever a greater functional characterisation of this genome is made available.An assortment of gene sequencing, silencing, deletion and heterologous expressiontechniques have enabled more elaborate studies on the genetic bases of biological processes( Figure ). Insect physiology benefited from thiswealth of novel techniques and has shown impressive progress concomitant with the amazingpotential of one particular insect model, Drosophila melanogaster ( Table ). In the last decades, it has been adopted as amain model for the study of the genetic and molecular bases of behaviour, being central tocurrent neuroscience. The molecular mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms, plasticity andthe formation of memories, sensory function and even, sexual behaviour have been studied inDrosophila ( Table ).Nevertheless, it presents limitations for neuroscience studies due its small size thatrestricts manipulation. For example, studies like those developed by VB Wigglesworth usingR. prolixus as an insect model for the study of metamorphosis andneurosecretory function could only be performed thanks to an extremely practical model thatallowed surgical procedures with minimal deleterious consequences. The present paperintends to propose R. prolixus as a new tool for the study of insectneuroscience due to these three characteristics: manipulation-friendly size, background asa classical insect physiology model and deep knowledge of diverse aspects of its behaviour.These facts, together with the recent characterisation of its genome sequence, will allowthe resurgence of an excellent insect physiology model, as in Wigglesworth’s time, but inthe omics era. Next follows a series of aspects of triatomine behaviour,as well as related candidate genes uncovered for other insects, whose characterisation andstudy would be invaluable in R. prolixus and other relevant Chagas diseasevectors.


Genetic basis of triatomine behavior: lessons from available insect genomes.

Latorre-Estivalis JM, Lazzari CR, Guarneri AA, Mota T, Omondi BA, Lorenzo MG - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2013)

Workflow scheme for the study of functional genetics underlying triatominebehaviour. EAG: electroantennogram; FISH: fluorescence in situhybridisation; IHC: immunohistochemistry; NGS: next-generation sequencing; qPCR:quantitative polymerase chain reaction; RT: reverse transcription; SSR: singlesensillum recording.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109181&req=5

f01: Workflow scheme for the study of functional genetics underlying triatominebehaviour. EAG: electroantennogram; FISH: fluorescence in situhybridisation; IHC: immunohistochemistry; NGS: next-generation sequencing; qPCR:quantitative polymerase chain reaction; RT: reverse transcription; SSR: singlesensillum recording.
Mentions: The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS), gene expression/regulation techniques and heterologous expression systems inthe post-genomic era - Many insect genomes have been sequenced to date, forminga rich source of appropriate orthologues of behaviour controlling genes to initiatesearches in the Rhodnius prolixus genome. Particularly, the genome of thepea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum represents one of the best candidates forguiding BLAST searches due to their closer phylogenetic relation ( The International Aphid Genomics Consortium 2010 ). This will be morerelevant whenever a greater functional characterisation of this genome is made available.An assortment of gene sequencing, silencing, deletion and heterologous expressiontechniques have enabled more elaborate studies on the genetic bases of biological processes( Figure ). Insect physiology benefited from thiswealth of novel techniques and has shown impressive progress concomitant with the amazingpotential of one particular insect model, Drosophila melanogaster ( Table ). In the last decades, it has been adopted as amain model for the study of the genetic and molecular bases of behaviour, being central tocurrent neuroscience. The molecular mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms, plasticity andthe formation of memories, sensory function and even, sexual behaviour have been studied inDrosophila ( Table ).Nevertheless, it presents limitations for neuroscience studies due its small size thatrestricts manipulation. For example, studies like those developed by VB Wigglesworth usingR. prolixus as an insect model for the study of metamorphosis andneurosecretory function could only be performed thanks to an extremely practical model thatallowed surgical procedures with minimal deleterious consequences. The present paperintends to propose R. prolixus as a new tool for the study of insectneuroscience due to these three characteristics: manipulation-friendly size, background asa classical insect physiology model and deep knowledge of diverse aspects of its behaviour.These facts, together with the recent characterisation of its genome sequence, will allowthe resurgence of an excellent insect physiology model, as in Wigglesworth’s time, but inthe omics era. Next follows a series of aspects of triatomine behaviour,as well as related candidate genes uncovered for other insects, whose characterisation andstudy would be invaluable in R. prolixus and other relevant Chagas diseasevectors.

Bottom Line: This, together with the current characterisation of the genome sequence of Rhodnius prolixus allows the resurgence of this excellent insect physiology model in the omics era.In the present revision, we suggest that studying the molecular basis of behaviour and sensory ecology in triatomines will promote a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of insect and, particularly, vector biology.This will allow uncovering unknown features of essential insect physiology questions for a hemimetabolous model organism, promoting more robust comparative studies of insect sensory function and cognition.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fiocruz, Brasil, Belo HorizonteMG, Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou-Fiocruz, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

ABSTRACT
Triatomines have been important model organisms for behavioural research. Diverse reports about triatomine host search, pheromone communication in the sexual, shelter and alarm contexts, daily cycles of activity, refuge choice and behavioural plasticity have been published in the last two decades. In recent times, a variety of molecular genetics techniques has allowed researchers to investigate elaborate and complex questions about the genetic bases of the physiology of insects. This, together with the current characterisation of the genome sequence of Rhodnius prolixus allows the resurgence of this excellent insect physiology model in the omics era. In the present revision, we suggest that studying the molecular basis of behaviour and sensory ecology in triatomines will promote a deeper understanding of fundamental aspects of insect and, particularly, vector biology. This will allow uncovering unknown features of essential insect physiology questions for a hemimetabolous model organism, promoting more robust comparative studies of insect sensory function and cognition.

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