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History of domestication and spread of Aedes aegypti--a review.

Powell JR, Tabachnick WJ - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2013)

Bottom Line: The adaptation of insect vectors of human diseases to breed in human habitats (domestication) is one of the most important phenomena in medical entomology.Considerable data are available on the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in this regard and here we integrate the available information including genetics, behaviour, morphology, ecology and biogeography of the mosquito, with human history.We emphasise the tremendous amount of variation possessed by Ae. aegypti for virtually all traits considered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, USA, New HavenCT, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
The adaptation of insect vectors of human diseases to breed in human habitats (domestication) is one of the most important phenomena in medical entomology. Considerable data are available on the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in this regard and here we integrate the available information including genetics, behaviour, morphology, ecology and biogeography of the mosquito, with human history. We emphasise the tremendous amount of variation possessed by Ae. aegypti for virtually all traits considered. Typological thinking needs to be abandoned to reach a realistic and comprehensive understanding of this important vector of yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Evolutionary history of Aedes aegypti from single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) and sequenced nuclear genes. Bootstrapped neighbour-joiningnetwork based on population pairwise chord-distances from 1,504 SNPs (left).Bayesian population tree based on phased DNA sequences of genes listed in Table.Node support over 75% is shown on relevant branches. East African populations areshaded in red, West and Central African populations in pink, the Rabai domestic(called Aaa here) population in purple, New World populations in dark blue andAsia-Pacific populations in light blue. Rooting was inferred from DNA sequences ofthree nuclear genes from Aedes mascarensis  ( Brown et al. 2013 ).
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f01: Evolutionary history of Aedes aegypti from single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) and sequenced nuclear genes. Bootstrapped neighbour-joiningnetwork based on population pairwise chord-distances from 1,504 SNPs (left).Bayesian population tree based on phased DNA sequences of genes listed in Table.Node support over 75% is shown on relevant branches. East African populations areshaded in red, West and Central African populations in pink, the Rabai domestic(called Aaa here) population in purple, New World populations in dark blue andAsia-Pacific populations in light blue. Rooting was inferred from DNA sequences ofthree nuclear genes from Aedes mascarensis ( Brown et al. 2013 ).

Mentions: Evidence from DNA sequencing and large-scale single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) analysesindicate that following introduction into the New World the species likely spread westwardacross the Pacific into Asia and Australia ( Figure). Populations in the New World are derived directly from African populations, whileAsia/Australian populations are derived from New World populations. A second piece ofgenetic information favouring Africa to New World to Asia/Australia is the level of geneticvariation. Table summarises the information. Aswould be expected by two successive founding events, the amount of genetic variationdecreases from Africa to the New World and then again from the New World to Asia/Australia.The westward expansion from the New World to Asia is surprising given that an easternmigration from East Africa to Asia might be expected based on geography and the historicintensive trade between India and East Africa. We have not yet seen genetic evidence ofthis, although it must be noted that our sampling in Asia is sparse especially with regardto the Indian Subcontinent. However, recent analyses of samples from Saudi Arabia areplaced with other Asian populations (A Gloria-Soria & JR Powell, unpublishedobservations). Data from allozymes indicated that samples from India were not geneticallydifferent from those from Indonesia and Taiwan ( Wallis etal. 1983 ). So as far as we know the colonisation out of Africa wasunidirectional, westward (although see below). The timing of Ae. aegypti colonisation of Asia is likely the late XIX century when dengue fever was first reportedand, importantly, in urban settings due to the arrival of the only urban dengue vector,Ae. aegypti ( Smith 1956 ). [Thehistoric absence of yellow fever in Asia, despite the presence of Ae.aegypti , remains one of medical entomology’s great mysteries. Severalexplanations for this have been proposed ( Tabachnick2013 )].


History of domestication and spread of Aedes aegypti--a review.

Powell JR, Tabachnick WJ - Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (2013)

Evolutionary history of Aedes aegypti from single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) and sequenced nuclear genes. Bootstrapped neighbour-joiningnetwork based on population pairwise chord-distances from 1,504 SNPs (left).Bayesian population tree based on phased DNA sequences of genes listed in Table.Node support over 75% is shown on relevant branches. East African populations areshaded in red, West and Central African populations in pink, the Rabai domestic(called Aaa here) population in purple, New World populations in dark blue andAsia-Pacific populations in light blue. Rooting was inferred from DNA sequences ofthree nuclear genes from Aedes mascarensis  ( Brown et al. 2013 ).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109175&req=5

f01: Evolutionary history of Aedes aegypti from single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) and sequenced nuclear genes. Bootstrapped neighbour-joiningnetwork based on population pairwise chord-distances from 1,504 SNPs (left).Bayesian population tree based on phased DNA sequences of genes listed in Table.Node support over 75% is shown on relevant branches. East African populations areshaded in red, West and Central African populations in pink, the Rabai domestic(called Aaa here) population in purple, New World populations in dark blue andAsia-Pacific populations in light blue. Rooting was inferred from DNA sequences ofthree nuclear genes from Aedes mascarensis ( Brown et al. 2013 ).
Mentions: Evidence from DNA sequencing and large-scale single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) analysesindicate that following introduction into the New World the species likely spread westwardacross the Pacific into Asia and Australia ( Figure). Populations in the New World are derived directly from African populations, whileAsia/Australian populations are derived from New World populations. A second piece ofgenetic information favouring Africa to New World to Asia/Australia is the level of geneticvariation. Table summarises the information. Aswould be expected by two successive founding events, the amount of genetic variationdecreases from Africa to the New World and then again from the New World to Asia/Australia.The westward expansion from the New World to Asia is surprising given that an easternmigration from East Africa to Asia might be expected based on geography and the historicintensive trade between India and East Africa. We have not yet seen genetic evidence ofthis, although it must be noted that our sampling in Asia is sparse especially with regardto the Indian Subcontinent. However, recent analyses of samples from Saudi Arabia areplaced with other Asian populations (A Gloria-Soria & JR Powell, unpublishedobservations). Data from allozymes indicated that samples from India were not geneticallydifferent from those from Indonesia and Taiwan ( Wallis etal. 1983 ). So as far as we know the colonisation out of Africa wasunidirectional, westward (although see below). The timing of Ae. aegypti colonisation of Asia is likely the late XIX century when dengue fever was first reportedand, importantly, in urban settings due to the arrival of the only urban dengue vector,Ae. aegypti ( Smith 1956 ). [Thehistoric absence of yellow fever in Asia, despite the presence of Ae.aegypti , remains one of medical entomology’s great mysteries. Severalexplanations for this have been proposed ( Tabachnick2013 )].

Bottom Line: The adaptation of insect vectors of human diseases to breed in human habitats (domestication) is one of the most important phenomena in medical entomology.Considerable data are available on the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in this regard and here we integrate the available information including genetics, behaviour, morphology, ecology and biogeography of the mosquito, with human history.We emphasise the tremendous amount of variation possessed by Ae. aegypti for virtually all traits considered.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, USA, New HavenCT, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

ABSTRACT
The adaptation of insect vectors of human diseases to breed in human habitats (domestication) is one of the most important phenomena in medical entomology. Considerable data are available on the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in this regard and here we integrate the available information including genetics, behaviour, morphology, ecology and biogeography of the mosquito, with human history. We emphasise the tremendous amount of variation possessed by Ae. aegypti for virtually all traits considered. Typological thinking needs to be abandoned to reach a realistic and comprehensive understanding of this important vector of yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus