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Comparative analyses of physiological responses of Cynodon dactylon accessions from Southwest China to sulfur dioxide toxicity.

Li X, Wang L, Li Y, Sun L, Cai S, Huang Z - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical.Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability.Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Landscape Architecture, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 211 Huimin Road, Wenjiang, Sichuan 611130, China.

ABSTRACT
Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity.

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Comparison of sulfur contents (a), SiR activities (b), and SO activities (c) in leaves from nine selected C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress. Mean values are presented with vertical error bars representing the standard deviations (n = 3). The asterisk symbols indicate significant differences between SO2-sensitive accessions and SO2-tolerant accessions.
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fig7: Comparison of sulfur contents (a), SiR activities (b), and SO activities (c) in leaves from nine selected C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress. Mean values are presented with vertical error bars representing the standard deviations (n = 3). The asterisk symbols indicate significant differences between SO2-sensitive accessions and SO2-tolerant accessions.

Mentions: Sulfur contents in leaves from two intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions (YN1110 and XZ1206) and all of the three high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions were significantly higher than those from any of the SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions at 0-day time-point without SO2 stress treatment (Figure 7(a)). After 7-day SO2 fumigation treatment, sulfur contents increased in leaves from all of the nine C. dactylon accessions in an increasing trend along with increase of SO2 tolerability of the C. dactylon accessions. Moreover, sulfur contents in leaves from all of the high and intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed significantly higher levels than those from any of the SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions (Figure 7(a)). SiR activities were nearly in the same levels (about 5 U/mg protein FW) in leaves from all of the nine C. dactylon accessions at 0-day time-point without SO2 treatment (Figure 7(b)). After 7-day SO2 stress treatment, SiR activities increased about 2-fold (approximate 10 U/mg protein FW) in SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions, 2.4-fold (approximate 12 U/mg protein FW) in intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, and 3.4-fold (approximate 17 U/mg protein FW) in high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, respectively. More importantly, SiR activities showed significantly higher levels in leaves from high and intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions than those from SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions, displaying an apparent increasing trend along with SO2 tolerability of the C. dactylon accessions (Figure 7(b)). SO activities in leaves from any of C. dactylon accessions after 7-day SO2 fumigation treatment showed nearly the same level with those from 0-day time-point without SO2 treatment (Figure 7(c)). However, SO activity levels were significantly higher in leaves from high and intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions than those from SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions, displaying an apparent increasing trend along with SO2 tolerability of the C. dactylon accessions (Figure 7(c)).


Comparative analyses of physiological responses of Cynodon dactylon accessions from Southwest China to sulfur dioxide toxicity.

Li X, Wang L, Li Y, Sun L, Cai S, Huang Z - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Comparison of sulfur contents (a), SiR activities (b), and SO activities (c) in leaves from nine selected C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress. Mean values are presented with vertical error bars representing the standard deviations (n = 3). The asterisk symbols indicate significant differences between SO2-sensitive accessions and SO2-tolerant accessions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109121&req=5

fig7: Comparison of sulfur contents (a), SiR activities (b), and SO activities (c) in leaves from nine selected C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress. Mean values are presented with vertical error bars representing the standard deviations (n = 3). The asterisk symbols indicate significant differences between SO2-sensitive accessions and SO2-tolerant accessions.
Mentions: Sulfur contents in leaves from two intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions (YN1110 and XZ1206) and all of the three high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions were significantly higher than those from any of the SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions at 0-day time-point without SO2 stress treatment (Figure 7(a)). After 7-day SO2 fumigation treatment, sulfur contents increased in leaves from all of the nine C. dactylon accessions in an increasing trend along with increase of SO2 tolerability of the C. dactylon accessions. Moreover, sulfur contents in leaves from all of the high and intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed significantly higher levels than those from any of the SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions (Figure 7(a)). SiR activities were nearly in the same levels (about 5 U/mg protein FW) in leaves from all of the nine C. dactylon accessions at 0-day time-point without SO2 treatment (Figure 7(b)). After 7-day SO2 stress treatment, SiR activities increased about 2-fold (approximate 10 U/mg protein FW) in SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions, 2.4-fold (approximate 12 U/mg protein FW) in intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, and 3.4-fold (approximate 17 U/mg protein FW) in high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, respectively. More importantly, SiR activities showed significantly higher levels in leaves from high and intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions than those from SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions, displaying an apparent increasing trend along with SO2 tolerability of the C. dactylon accessions (Figure 7(b)). SO activities in leaves from any of C. dactylon accessions after 7-day SO2 fumigation treatment showed nearly the same level with those from 0-day time-point without SO2 treatment (Figure 7(c)). However, SO activity levels were significantly higher in leaves from high and intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions than those from SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions, displaying an apparent increasing trend along with SO2 tolerability of the C. dactylon accessions (Figure 7(c)).

Bottom Line: To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical.Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability.Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Landscape Architecture, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 211 Huimin Road, Wenjiang, Sichuan 611130, China.

ABSTRACT
Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus