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Comparative analyses of physiological responses of Cynodon dactylon accessions from Southwest China to sulfur dioxide toxicity.

Li X, Wang L, Li Y, Sun L, Cai S, Huang Z - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical.Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability.Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Landscape Architecture, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 211 Huimin Road, Wenjiang, Sichuan 611130, China.

ABSTRACT
Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity.

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Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves from C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress. Antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD (a), POD (b), and CAT (c) in leaves from nine selected C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress were compared. Mean values are presented with vertical error bars representing the standard deviations (n = 3). The asterisk symbols indicate significant differences between SO2-sensitive accessions and SO2-tolerant accessions.
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fig6: Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves from C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress. Antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD (a), POD (b), and CAT (c) in leaves from nine selected C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress were compared. Mean values are presented with vertical error bars representing the standard deviations (n = 3). The asterisk symbols indicate significant differences between SO2-sensitive accessions and SO2-tolerant accessions.

Mentions: To address the relationship between the changes of ROS level and the antioxidant enzyme activities, three major antioxidant enzymes, including SOD, POD, and CAT, were analyzed for their enzyme activities. SOD activities showed no significant differences (about 30 U/g protein FW) in leaves from high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, and SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions at 0-day time-point without SO2 treatment (Figure 6(a)). After 7-day SO2 stress treatment, SOD activities increased greatly in leaves from all of the nine C. dactylon accessions. However, the increase degree was in a decreasing trend along with SO2 tolerability of the C. dactylon accessions, displaying highest activities in SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions (more than 120 U/g protein FW) and lowest activities in high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions (more than 60 U/g protein FW) (Figure 6(a)). POD activities increased in leaves from all of the nine C. dactylon accessions after 7-day SO2 stress treatment, but no significant differences were observed within high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, and SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions (Figure 6(b)). However, we found that POD activities in leaves from SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions were significantly higher than those from SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions in an increasing trend along with an increase of SO2 tolerability at 0-day time-point without SO2 treatment, displaying nearly 1.4-fold increase (15433/11183 U/g protein FW) and 1.7-fold increase (18866/11183 U/g protein FW) of enzyme activities in intermediate SO2-tolerant and high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, respectively (Figure 6(b)). CAT activities increased in leaves from all of the nine C. dactylon accessions after 7-day SO2 stress treatment, but no significant differences were observed in leaves from high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, and SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions either after 7-day SO2 stress treatment or at 0-day without SO2 treatment (Figure 6(c)).


Comparative analyses of physiological responses of Cynodon dactylon accessions from Southwest China to sulfur dioxide toxicity.

Li X, Wang L, Li Y, Sun L, Cai S, Huang Z - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves from C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress. Antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD (a), POD (b), and CAT (c) in leaves from nine selected C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress were compared. Mean values are presented with vertical error bars representing the standard deviations (n = 3). The asterisk symbols indicate significant differences between SO2-sensitive accessions and SO2-tolerant accessions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109121&req=5

fig6: Comparison of antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves from C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress. Antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD (a), POD (b), and CAT (c) in leaves from nine selected C. dactylon accessions in response to SO2 stress were compared. Mean values are presented with vertical error bars representing the standard deviations (n = 3). The asterisk symbols indicate significant differences between SO2-sensitive accessions and SO2-tolerant accessions.
Mentions: To address the relationship between the changes of ROS level and the antioxidant enzyme activities, three major antioxidant enzymes, including SOD, POD, and CAT, were analyzed for their enzyme activities. SOD activities showed no significant differences (about 30 U/g protein FW) in leaves from high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, and SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions at 0-day time-point without SO2 treatment (Figure 6(a)). After 7-day SO2 stress treatment, SOD activities increased greatly in leaves from all of the nine C. dactylon accessions. However, the increase degree was in a decreasing trend along with SO2 tolerability of the C. dactylon accessions, displaying highest activities in SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions (more than 120 U/g protein FW) and lowest activities in high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions (more than 60 U/g protein FW) (Figure 6(a)). POD activities increased in leaves from all of the nine C. dactylon accessions after 7-day SO2 stress treatment, but no significant differences were observed within high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, and SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions (Figure 6(b)). However, we found that POD activities in leaves from SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions were significantly higher than those from SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions in an increasing trend along with an increase of SO2 tolerability at 0-day time-point without SO2 treatment, displaying nearly 1.4-fold increase (15433/11183 U/g protein FW) and 1.7-fold increase (18866/11183 U/g protein FW) of enzyme activities in intermediate SO2-tolerant and high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, respectively (Figure 6(b)). CAT activities increased in leaves from all of the nine C. dactylon accessions after 7-day SO2 stress treatment, but no significant differences were observed in leaves from high SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, intermediate SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions, and SO2-sensitive C. dactylon accessions either after 7-day SO2 stress treatment or at 0-day without SO2 treatment (Figure 6(c)).

Bottom Line: To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical.Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability.Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: College of Landscape Architecture, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 211 Huimin Road, Wenjiang, Sichuan 611130, China.

ABSTRACT
Sulfur dioxide (SO2), a major air pollutant in developing countries, is highly toxic to plants. To achieve better air quality and landscape, planting appropriate grass species in severe SO2 polluted areas is very critical. Cynodon dactylon, a widely used warm season turfgrass species, has good SO2-tolerant ability. In this study, we selected 9 out of 38 C. dactylon accessions from Southwest China as representatives of high, intermediate SO2-tolerant and SO2-sensitive accessions to comparatively analyze their physiological differences in leaves under SO2 untreated and treated conditions. Our results revealed that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions showed higher soluble sugar, proline, and chlorophyll a contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions; higher chlorophyll b and carotenoid under SO2 treated condition; lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, oxidative damages, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities under SO2 treated condition; and higher peroxidase (POD) activities under SO2 untreated condition. Further results indicated that SO2-tolerant C. dactylon accessions had higher sulfur contents under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, consistent with higher SO activities under both SO2 treated and untreated conditions, and higher SiR activities under SO2 treated condition. Taken together, our results indicated that SO2 tolerance of C. dactylon might be largely related to soluble sugar, proline and chlorophyll a contents, and SO enzyme activity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus