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The enigma of the tinnitus-free dream state in a Bayesian world.

De Ridder D, Joos K, Vanneste S - Neural Plast. (2014)

Bottom Line: That is, during the awake state the brain constantly makes predictions about the environment.Tinnitus is hypothesized to be the result of a prediction error due to deafferentation, and missing input is filled in by the brain.The heuristic explanation then is that in the dream state there is no interaction with the environment and therefore no updating of the prediction error, resulting in the absence of tinnitus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgical Sciences, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand ; BRAI²N & TRI, Sint Augustinus Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
There are pathophysiological, clinical, and treatment analogies between phantom limb pain and phantom sound (i.e., tinnitus). Phantom limb pain commonly is absent in dreams, and the question arises whether this is also the case for tinnitus. A questionnaire was given to 78 consecutive tinnitus patients seen at a specialized tinnitus clinic. Seventy-six patients remembered their dreams and of these 74 claim not to perceive tinnitus during their dreams (97%). This can be most easily explained by a predictive Bayesian brain model. That is, during the awake state the brain constantly makes predictions about the environment. Tinnitus is hypothesized to be the result of a prediction error due to deafferentation, and missing input is filled in by the brain. The heuristic explanation then is that in the dream state there is no interaction with the environment and therefore no updating of the prediction error, resulting in the absence of tinnitus.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Hypothetical explanation of the absence of tinnitus in dreams as seen from the predictive brain; (b) hypothetical explanation of the absence of tinnitus in dreams as seen from the Bayesian brain.
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fig2: (a) Hypothetical explanation of the absence of tinnitus in dreams as seen from the predictive brain; (b) hypothetical explanation of the absence of tinnitus in dreams as seen from the Bayesian brain.

Mentions: When we dream, we create an image of the world that is entirely detached from sensory feedback [34]; that is, it cannot be updated. This is under influence of decrease in monoamines in REM sleep. Aminergic activity is highest during waking, declines during NREM sleep, and is lowest during REM sleep. Cholinergic activity on the other hand shows the reverse pattern [34]. Sensory prediction errors are suppressed by aminergic influence during sleep [34]. This means that the discrepancy between top-down predictions and (the absence of) sensory signals received will not be registered, and the auditory deafferentation will not be filled in, resulting in the absence of tinnitus in the dream state (see Figures 2(a) and 2(b)) [26].


The enigma of the tinnitus-free dream state in a Bayesian world.

De Ridder D, Joos K, Vanneste S - Neural Plast. (2014)

(a) Hypothetical explanation of the absence of tinnitus in dreams as seen from the predictive brain; (b) hypothetical explanation of the absence of tinnitus in dreams as seen from the Bayesian brain.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4109081&req=5

fig2: (a) Hypothetical explanation of the absence of tinnitus in dreams as seen from the predictive brain; (b) hypothetical explanation of the absence of tinnitus in dreams as seen from the Bayesian brain.
Mentions: When we dream, we create an image of the world that is entirely detached from sensory feedback [34]; that is, it cannot be updated. This is under influence of decrease in monoamines in REM sleep. Aminergic activity is highest during waking, declines during NREM sleep, and is lowest during REM sleep. Cholinergic activity on the other hand shows the reverse pattern [34]. Sensory prediction errors are suppressed by aminergic influence during sleep [34]. This means that the discrepancy between top-down predictions and (the absence of) sensory signals received will not be registered, and the auditory deafferentation will not be filled in, resulting in the absence of tinnitus in the dream state (see Figures 2(a) and 2(b)) [26].

Bottom Line: That is, during the awake state the brain constantly makes predictions about the environment.Tinnitus is hypothesized to be the result of a prediction error due to deafferentation, and missing input is filled in by the brain.The heuristic explanation then is that in the dream state there is no interaction with the environment and therefore no updating of the prediction error, resulting in the absence of tinnitus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgical Sciences, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand ; BRAI²N & TRI, Sint Augustinus Hospital, Antwerp, Belgium.

ABSTRACT
There are pathophysiological, clinical, and treatment analogies between phantom limb pain and phantom sound (i.e., tinnitus). Phantom limb pain commonly is absent in dreams, and the question arises whether this is also the case for tinnitus. A questionnaire was given to 78 consecutive tinnitus patients seen at a specialized tinnitus clinic. Seventy-six patients remembered their dreams and of these 74 claim not to perceive tinnitus during their dreams (97%). This can be most easily explained by a predictive Bayesian brain model. That is, during the awake state the brain constantly makes predictions about the environment. Tinnitus is hypothesized to be the result of a prediction error due to deafferentation, and missing input is filled in by the brain. The heuristic explanation then is that in the dream state there is no interaction with the environment and therefore no updating of the prediction error, resulting in the absence of tinnitus.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus