Limits...
Immediate effects of deep brain stimulation of anterior thalamic nuclei on executive functions and emotion-attention interaction in humans.

Hartikainen KM, Sun L, Polvivaara M, Brause M, Lehtimäki K, Haapasalo J, Möttönen T, Väyrynen K, Ogawa KH, Öhman J, Peltola J - J Clin Exp Neuropsychol (2014)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, ANT-DBS slowed RTs in context of threat-related distractors.We found immediate objective effects of ANT-DBS on human cognitive control and emotion-attention interaction.We suggest that ANT-DBS compromised response inhibition and enhanced attention allocation to threat due to altered functioning of neural networks that involve the DBS-target, ANT, and the regions connected to it such as ACC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: a Behavioral Neurology Research Unit, Tampere University Hospital , Tampere , Finland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT) is a novel promising therapeutic method for treating refractory epilepsy. Despite reports of subjective memory impairments and mood disturbances in patients with ANT-DBS, little is known of its effects on cognitive and affective processes.

Hypothesis: The anterior thalamus has connections to prefrontal and limbic networks important for cognitive control and emotional reactivity. More specifically, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), linked with ANT, has been assigned roles related to response inhibition and attention allocation to threat. Thus, we hypothesized ANT-DBS to influence executive functions, particularly response inhibition, and modulate emotional reactivity to threat.

Method: Twelve patients having undergone ANT-DBS for intractable epilepsy participated in the study. Patients performed a computer-based executive reaction time (RT) test--that is, a go/no-go visual discrimination task with threat-related emotional distractors and rule switching, while the DBS was switched ON (5/5 mA constant current) and OFF every few minutes.

Results: ANT-DBS increased the amount of commission errors--that is, errors where subjects failed to withhold from responding. Furthermore, ANT-DBS slowed RTs in context of threat-related distractors. When stimulation was turned off, threat-related distractors had no distinct effect on RTs.

Conclusion: We found immediate objective effects of ANT-DBS on human cognitive control and emotion-attention interaction. We suggest that ANT-DBS compromised response inhibition and enhanced attention allocation to threat due to altered functioning of neural networks that involve the DBS-target, ANT, and the regions connected to it such as ACC. The results highlight the need to consider affective and cognitive side-effects in addition to the therapeutic effect when adjusting stimulation parameters. Furthermore, this study introduces a novel window into cognitive and affective processes by modulating the associative and limbic networks with direct stimulation of key nodes in the thalamus.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Stimulating the anterior nucleus of thalamus impaired response inhibition, as reflected in increased commission error rate. Stim = stimulation. *p < .05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4066928&req=5

Figure 5: Stimulating the anterior nucleus of thalamus impaired response inhibition, as reflected in increased commission error rate. Stim = stimulation. *p < .05.

Mentions: Whole group. Analysis with all subjects (n = 11) resulted in an interaction effect of stimulation and location, F(1, 10) = 5.96, MSE = 0.07%, p < .04, for commission errors—that is, errors where withholding a response failed. Post hoc ANOVAs carried out separately for active electrode position “at ANT” and “outside ANT” conditions revealed a main effect of stimulation only when the active electrode was “at ANT,” F(1, 10) = 5.44, MSE = 0.20%, p < .05, with more commission errors made when the stimulator was ON (10.32% ± 9.16%) than when it was turned OFF (7.17% ± 8.10%). In contrast, the main effect of stimulation did not exist while the active electrode was “outside ANT,” F(1, 10) = 0.15, MSE = 0.11%, p = .71 (see Figure 5).


Immediate effects of deep brain stimulation of anterior thalamic nuclei on executive functions and emotion-attention interaction in humans.

Hartikainen KM, Sun L, Polvivaara M, Brause M, Lehtimäki K, Haapasalo J, Möttönen T, Väyrynen K, Ogawa KH, Öhman J, Peltola J - J Clin Exp Neuropsychol (2014)

Stimulating the anterior nucleus of thalamus impaired response inhibition, as reflected in increased commission error rate. Stim = stimulation. *p < .05.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4066928&req=5

Figure 5: Stimulating the anterior nucleus of thalamus impaired response inhibition, as reflected in increased commission error rate. Stim = stimulation. *p < .05.
Mentions: Whole group. Analysis with all subjects (n = 11) resulted in an interaction effect of stimulation and location, F(1, 10) = 5.96, MSE = 0.07%, p < .04, for commission errors—that is, errors where withholding a response failed. Post hoc ANOVAs carried out separately for active electrode position “at ANT” and “outside ANT” conditions revealed a main effect of stimulation only when the active electrode was “at ANT,” F(1, 10) = 5.44, MSE = 0.20%, p < .05, with more commission errors made when the stimulator was ON (10.32% ± 9.16%) than when it was turned OFF (7.17% ± 8.10%). In contrast, the main effect of stimulation did not exist while the active electrode was “outside ANT,” F(1, 10) = 0.15, MSE = 0.11%, p = .71 (see Figure 5).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, ANT-DBS slowed RTs in context of threat-related distractors.We found immediate objective effects of ANT-DBS on human cognitive control and emotion-attention interaction.We suggest that ANT-DBS compromised response inhibition and enhanced attention allocation to threat due to altered functioning of neural networks that involve the DBS-target, ANT, and the regions connected to it such as ACC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: a Behavioral Neurology Research Unit, Tampere University Hospital , Tampere , Finland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT) is a novel promising therapeutic method for treating refractory epilepsy. Despite reports of subjective memory impairments and mood disturbances in patients with ANT-DBS, little is known of its effects on cognitive and affective processes.

Hypothesis: The anterior thalamus has connections to prefrontal and limbic networks important for cognitive control and emotional reactivity. More specifically, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), linked with ANT, has been assigned roles related to response inhibition and attention allocation to threat. Thus, we hypothesized ANT-DBS to influence executive functions, particularly response inhibition, and modulate emotional reactivity to threat.

Method: Twelve patients having undergone ANT-DBS for intractable epilepsy participated in the study. Patients performed a computer-based executive reaction time (RT) test--that is, a go/no-go visual discrimination task with threat-related emotional distractors and rule switching, while the DBS was switched ON (5/5 mA constant current) and OFF every few minutes.

Results: ANT-DBS increased the amount of commission errors--that is, errors where subjects failed to withhold from responding. Furthermore, ANT-DBS slowed RTs in context of threat-related distractors. When stimulation was turned off, threat-related distractors had no distinct effect on RTs.

Conclusion: We found immediate objective effects of ANT-DBS on human cognitive control and emotion-attention interaction. We suggest that ANT-DBS compromised response inhibition and enhanced attention allocation to threat due to altered functioning of neural networks that involve the DBS-target, ANT, and the regions connected to it such as ACC. The results highlight the need to consider affective and cognitive side-effects in addition to the therapeutic effect when adjusting stimulation parameters. Furthermore, this study introduces a novel window into cognitive and affective processes by modulating the associative and limbic networks with direct stimulation of key nodes in the thalamus.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus