Limits...
Immediate effects of deep brain stimulation of anterior thalamic nuclei on executive functions and emotion-attention interaction in humans.

Hartikainen KM, Sun L, Polvivaara M, Brause M, Lehtimäki K, Haapasalo J, Möttönen T, Väyrynen K, Ogawa KH, Öhman J, Peltola J - J Clin Exp Neuropsychol (2014)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, ANT-DBS slowed RTs in context of threat-related distractors.We found immediate objective effects of ANT-DBS on human cognitive control and emotion-attention interaction.We suggest that ANT-DBS compromised response inhibition and enhanced attention allocation to threat due to altered functioning of neural networks that involve the DBS-target, ANT, and the regions connected to it such as ACC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: a Behavioral Neurology Research Unit, Tampere University Hospital , Tampere , Finland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT) is a novel promising therapeutic method for treating refractory epilepsy. Despite reports of subjective memory impairments and mood disturbances in patients with ANT-DBS, little is known of its effects on cognitive and affective processes.

Hypothesis: The anterior thalamus has connections to prefrontal and limbic networks important for cognitive control and emotional reactivity. More specifically, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), linked with ANT, has been assigned roles related to response inhibition and attention allocation to threat. Thus, we hypothesized ANT-DBS to influence executive functions, particularly response inhibition, and modulate emotional reactivity to threat.

Method: Twelve patients having undergone ANT-DBS for intractable epilepsy participated in the study. Patients performed a computer-based executive reaction time (RT) test--that is, a go/no-go visual discrimination task with threat-related emotional distractors and rule switching, while the DBS was switched ON (5/5 mA constant current) and OFF every few minutes.

Results: ANT-DBS increased the amount of commission errors--that is, errors where subjects failed to withhold from responding. Furthermore, ANT-DBS slowed RTs in context of threat-related distractors. When stimulation was turned off, threat-related distractors had no distinct effect on RTs.

Conclusion: We found immediate objective effects of ANT-DBS on human cognitive control and emotion-attention interaction. We suggest that ANT-DBS compromised response inhibition and enhanced attention allocation to threat due to altered functioning of neural networks that involve the DBS-target, ANT, and the regions connected to it such as ACC. The results highlight the need to consider affective and cognitive side-effects in addition to the therapeutic effect when adjusting stimulation parameters. Furthermore, this study introduces a novel window into cognitive and affective processes by modulating the associative and limbic networks with direct stimulation of key nodes in the thalamus.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Stimulating the anterior thalamus enhanced attention to threat, as reflected with slowed reaction times (RTs) in the presence of emotional distractors than in the presence of neutral distractors. ANT = anterior thalamic nuclei; Stim = stimulation. **p < .01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4066928&req=5

Figure 4: Stimulating the anterior thalamus enhanced attention to threat, as reflected with slowed reaction times (RTs) in the presence of emotional distractors than in the presence of neutral distractors. ANT = anterior thalamic nuclei; Stim = stimulation. **p < .01.

Mentions: Whole group. RT analysis from all subjects (n = 11) resulted in a main effect of stimulation, F(1, 10) = 5.60, MSE = 333.3, p < .04, and a main effect of emotion, F(1, 10) = 5.14, MSE = 238.1, p < .05. Stimulation ON slowed RT (514 ± 117 ms) compared to stimulation OFF (504 ±113 ms), while emotional distractors slowed down RTs (513±116ms)in comparison to neutral distractors (505 ± 114 ms). There was also a significant interaction effect between emotion and stimulation, F(1, 10) = 1.04, MSE = 181.4, p < .01. Post hoc ANOVAs done separately for stimulation ON versus OFF revealed that the main effect of emotion was significant only when the stimulation was, with slowed RTs in the context of emotional distractors in comparison to neutral distractors during stimulation (emotional 522 ± 119 ms, neutral 505 ± 115), F(1, 10) = 16.63, MSE = 185.4, p < .003, but not during stimulation turned OFF (emotional 504 ± 114 ms, neutral 505 ± 113 ms), F(1, 10) = 0.16, MSE = 243.1, p = .70 (see Figure 4).


Immediate effects of deep brain stimulation of anterior thalamic nuclei on executive functions and emotion-attention interaction in humans.

Hartikainen KM, Sun L, Polvivaara M, Brause M, Lehtimäki K, Haapasalo J, Möttönen T, Väyrynen K, Ogawa KH, Öhman J, Peltola J - J Clin Exp Neuropsychol (2014)

Stimulating the anterior thalamus enhanced attention to threat, as reflected with slowed reaction times (RTs) in the presence of emotional distractors than in the presence of neutral distractors. ANT = anterior thalamic nuclei; Stim = stimulation. **p < .01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4066928&req=5

Figure 4: Stimulating the anterior thalamus enhanced attention to threat, as reflected with slowed reaction times (RTs) in the presence of emotional distractors than in the presence of neutral distractors. ANT = anterior thalamic nuclei; Stim = stimulation. **p < .01.
Mentions: Whole group. RT analysis from all subjects (n = 11) resulted in a main effect of stimulation, F(1, 10) = 5.60, MSE = 333.3, p < .04, and a main effect of emotion, F(1, 10) = 5.14, MSE = 238.1, p < .05. Stimulation ON slowed RT (514 ± 117 ms) compared to stimulation OFF (504 ±113 ms), while emotional distractors slowed down RTs (513±116ms)in comparison to neutral distractors (505 ± 114 ms). There was also a significant interaction effect between emotion and stimulation, F(1, 10) = 1.04, MSE = 181.4, p < .01. Post hoc ANOVAs done separately for stimulation ON versus OFF revealed that the main effect of emotion was significant only when the stimulation was, with slowed RTs in the context of emotional distractors in comparison to neutral distractors during stimulation (emotional 522 ± 119 ms, neutral 505 ± 115), F(1, 10) = 16.63, MSE = 185.4, p < .003, but not during stimulation turned OFF (emotional 504 ± 114 ms, neutral 505 ± 113 ms), F(1, 10) = 0.16, MSE = 243.1, p = .70 (see Figure 4).

Bottom Line: Furthermore, ANT-DBS slowed RTs in context of threat-related distractors.We found immediate objective effects of ANT-DBS on human cognitive control and emotion-attention interaction.We suggest that ANT-DBS compromised response inhibition and enhanced attention allocation to threat due to altered functioning of neural networks that involve the DBS-target, ANT, and the regions connected to it such as ACC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: a Behavioral Neurology Research Unit, Tampere University Hospital , Tampere , Finland.

ABSTRACT

Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of anterior thalamic nuclei (ANT) is a novel promising therapeutic method for treating refractory epilepsy. Despite reports of subjective memory impairments and mood disturbances in patients with ANT-DBS, little is known of its effects on cognitive and affective processes.

Hypothesis: The anterior thalamus has connections to prefrontal and limbic networks important for cognitive control and emotional reactivity. More specifically, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), linked with ANT, has been assigned roles related to response inhibition and attention allocation to threat. Thus, we hypothesized ANT-DBS to influence executive functions, particularly response inhibition, and modulate emotional reactivity to threat.

Method: Twelve patients having undergone ANT-DBS for intractable epilepsy participated in the study. Patients performed a computer-based executive reaction time (RT) test--that is, a go/no-go visual discrimination task with threat-related emotional distractors and rule switching, while the DBS was switched ON (5/5 mA constant current) and OFF every few minutes.

Results: ANT-DBS increased the amount of commission errors--that is, errors where subjects failed to withhold from responding. Furthermore, ANT-DBS slowed RTs in context of threat-related distractors. When stimulation was turned off, threat-related distractors had no distinct effect on RTs.

Conclusion: We found immediate objective effects of ANT-DBS on human cognitive control and emotion-attention interaction. We suggest that ANT-DBS compromised response inhibition and enhanced attention allocation to threat due to altered functioning of neural networks that involve the DBS-target, ANT, and the regions connected to it such as ACC. The results highlight the need to consider affective and cognitive side-effects in addition to the therapeutic effect when adjusting stimulation parameters. Furthermore, this study introduces a novel window into cognitive and affective processes by modulating the associative and limbic networks with direct stimulation of key nodes in the thalamus.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus