The evolutionary dynamics of variant antigen genes in Babesia reveal a history of genomic innovation underlying host-parasite interaction.
Bottom Line: Similarly, analysis of sequence mosaicism shows that recombination drives variation in ves1 sequences, but less so for ves2, indicating the adoption of different mechanisms for variation of the two families.Proteomic analysis of the B. bigemina PR isolate shows that two dominant VESA1 proteins are expressed in the population, whereas numerous VESA2 proteins are co-expressed, consistent with differential transcriptional regulation of each family.Hence, VESA2 proteins are abundant and previously unrecognized elements of Babesia biology, with evolutionary dynamics consistently different to those of VESA1, suggesting that their functions are distinct.
Affiliation: Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool Science Park Ic2, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK email@example.com.Show MeSH
Mentions: In B. bigemina BOND there are two families homologous to ves1 that are approximately equally abundant; we refer to these families as BbigVes1a (N = 74) and BbigVes1b (N = 80). While ∼70% of B. bovis ves1 are arranged in putative LATs consisting of both ves1 types (26), these homologs are similarly arranged in only 35% of cases in B. bigemina BOND. Indeed, the phylogeny of all ves1 genes (see Figure 4 below) indicates that these homologs in B. bigemina are not orthologous to the ves1α and ves1β of B. bovis. Sixteen gene copies (‘BbigVes1ba’) appear to be recombinant ves1b, with ves1a-type 3′ ends. We found no smORF homologs in B. bigemina.
Affiliation: Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool Science Park Ic2, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, UK firstname.lastname@example.org.