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Lipid peroxidation: production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal.

Ayala A, Muñoz MF, Argüelles S - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2014)

Bottom Line: Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health.Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970-1974) and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010-2013).New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Prof García Gonzales s/n., 41012 Seville, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Lipid peroxidation can be described generally as a process under which oxidants such as free radicals attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bond(s), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health. Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970-1974) and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010-2013). New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day. Given the enormity of this field, this review focuses on biochemical concepts of lipid peroxidation, production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of two main omega-6 fatty acids lipid peroxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA) and, in particular, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), summarizing not only its physiological and protective function as signaling molecule stimulating gene expression and cell survival, but also its cytotoxic role inhibiting gene expression and promoting cell death. Finally, overviews of in vivo mammalian model systems used to study the lipid peroxidation process, and common pathological processes linked to MDA and 4-HNE are shown.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Reduced form of transition-metals (Mn) reacts trough the Fenton reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), leading to the generation of •OH. Superoxide radical (O2•−) can also react with oxidized form of transition metals (M(n+1)) in the Haber-Weiss reaction leading to the production of Mn, which then again affects redox cycling.
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fig1: Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Reduced form of transition-metals (Mn) reacts trough the Fenton reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), leading to the generation of •OH. Superoxide radical (O2•−) can also react with oxidized form of transition metals (M(n+1)) in the Haber-Weiss reaction leading to the production of Mn, which then again affects redox cycling.

Mentions: The two most prevalent ROS that can affect profoundly the lipids are mainly hydroxyl radical (HO•) and hydroperoxyl (HO•2). The hydroxyl radical (HO•) is a small, highly mobile, water-soluble, and chemically most reactive species of activated oxygen. This short-lived molecule can be produced from O2 in cell metabolism and under a variety of stress conditions. A cell produces around 50 hydroxyl radicals every second. In a full day, each cell would generate 4 million hydroxyl radicals, which can be neutralized or attack biomolecules [21]. Hydroxyl radicals cause oxidative damage to cells because they unspecifically attack biomolecules [22] located less than a few nanometres from its site of generation and are involved in cellular disorders such as neurodegeneration [23, 24], cardiovascular disease [25], and cancer [26, 27]. It is generally assumed that HO• in biological systems is formed through redox cycling by Fenton reaction, where free iron (Fe2+) reacts with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the Haber-Weiss reaction that results in the production of Fe2+ when superoxide reacts with ferric iron (Fe3+). In addition to the iron redox cycling described above, also a number of other transition-metal including Cu, Ni, Co, and V can be responsible for HO• formation in living cells (Figure 1).


Lipid peroxidation: production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal.

Ayala A, Muñoz MF, Argüelles S - Oxid Med Cell Longev (2014)

Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Reduced form of transition-metals (Mn) reacts trough the Fenton reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), leading to the generation of •OH. Superoxide radical (O2•−) can also react with oxidized form of transition metals (M(n+1)) in the Haber-Weiss reaction leading to the production of Mn, which then again affects redox cycling.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4066722&req=5

fig1: Fenton and Haber-Weiss reaction. Reduced form of transition-metals (Mn) reacts trough the Fenton reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), leading to the generation of •OH. Superoxide radical (O2•−) can also react with oxidized form of transition metals (M(n+1)) in the Haber-Weiss reaction leading to the production of Mn, which then again affects redox cycling.
Mentions: The two most prevalent ROS that can affect profoundly the lipids are mainly hydroxyl radical (HO•) and hydroperoxyl (HO•2). The hydroxyl radical (HO•) is a small, highly mobile, water-soluble, and chemically most reactive species of activated oxygen. This short-lived molecule can be produced from O2 in cell metabolism and under a variety of stress conditions. A cell produces around 50 hydroxyl radicals every second. In a full day, each cell would generate 4 million hydroxyl radicals, which can be neutralized or attack biomolecules [21]. Hydroxyl radicals cause oxidative damage to cells because they unspecifically attack biomolecules [22] located less than a few nanometres from its site of generation and are involved in cellular disorders such as neurodegeneration [23, 24], cardiovascular disease [25], and cancer [26, 27]. It is generally assumed that HO• in biological systems is formed through redox cycling by Fenton reaction, where free iron (Fe2+) reacts with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the Haber-Weiss reaction that results in the production of Fe2+ when superoxide reacts with ferric iron (Fe3+). In addition to the iron redox cycling described above, also a number of other transition-metal including Cu, Ni, Co, and V can be responsible for HO• formation in living cells (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health.Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970-1974) and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010-2013).New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Prof García Gonzales s/n., 41012 Seville, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Lipid peroxidation can be described generally as a process under which oxidants such as free radicals attack lipids containing carbon-carbon double bond(s), especially polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Over the last four decades, an extensive body of literature regarding lipid peroxidation has shown its important role in cell biology and human health. Since the early 1970s, the total published research articles on the topic of lipid peroxidation was 98 (1970-1974) and has been increasing at almost 135-fold, by up to 13165 in last 4 years (2010-2013). New discoveries about the involvement in cellular physiology and pathology, as well as the control of lipid peroxidation, continue to emerge every day. Given the enormity of this field, this review focuses on biochemical concepts of lipid peroxidation, production, metabolism, and signaling mechanisms of two main omega-6 fatty acids lipid peroxidation products: malondialdehyde (MDA) and, in particular, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), summarizing not only its physiological and protective function as signaling molecule stimulating gene expression and cell survival, but also its cytotoxic role inhibiting gene expression and promoting cell death. Finally, overviews of in vivo mammalian model systems used to study the lipid peroxidation process, and common pathological processes linked to MDA and 4-HNE are shown.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus