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Phosphatidic acid enhances mTOR signaling and resistance exercise induced hypertrophy.

Joy JM, Gundermann DM, Lowery RP, Jäger R, McCleary SA, Purpura M, Roberts MD, Wilson SM, Hornberger TA, Wilson JM - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2014)

Bottom Line: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various PA precursors and phospholipids on their ability to stimulate mTOR signaling and its ability to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance.In phase one, soy-phosphatidylserine, soy-Lyso-PA, egg-PA, and soy-PA stimulated mTOR signaling, and the effects of soy-PA (+636%) were significantly greater than egg-PA (+221%).In phase two, PA significantly increased lean body mass (+2.4 kg), cross sectional area (+1.0 cm), and leg press strength (+51.9 kg) over placebo.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, The University of Tampa, 401 W. Kennedy Blvd., Box 30 F, Tampa, FL 33606, USA.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The lipid messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a critical role in the stimulation of mTOR signaling. However, the mechanism by which PA stimulates mTOR is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various PA precursors and phospholipids on their ability to stimulate mTOR signaling and its ability to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance.

Methods: In phase one, C2C12 myoblasts cells were stimulated with different phospholipids and phospholipid precursors derived from soy and egg sources. The ratio of phosphorylated p70 (P-p70-389) to total p70 was then used as readout for mTOR signaling. In phase two, resistance trained subjects (n = 28, 21 ± 3 years, 77 ± 4 kg, 176 ± 9 cm) consumed either 750 mg PA daily or placebo and each took part in an 8 week periodized resistance training program.

Results: In phase one, soy-phosphatidylserine, soy-Lyso-PA, egg-PA, and soy-PA stimulated mTOR signaling, and the effects of soy-PA (+636%) were significantly greater than egg-PA (+221%). In phase two, PA significantly increased lean body mass (+2.4 kg), cross sectional area (+1.0 cm), and leg press strength (+51.9 kg) over placebo.

Conclusion: PA significantly activates mTOR and significantly improved responses in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and maximal strength to resistance exercise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of various lipids on the activation of mTOR signaling. C2C12 myoblasts were stimulated for 20 minutes with vehicle (Control), or 10-30 μM of soy-derived (S) phosphatidylserine (S-PS), phosphatidylinositol (S-PI), phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (S-PE), phosphatidylcholine (S-PC), PA (S-PA), lysophosphatidic acid (S-LPA), diacylglycerol (DAG), glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), or egg-derived PA (E-PA). The samples were then subjected to Western blot analysis for p70 phosphorylated on the threonine 389 residue (p70-389) and total p70. The ratio of these signals was calculated and used as a marker of mTOR signaling. Values in the graphs represent the mean + SEM and were obtained from 2–3 independent experiments (n = 4–12/group). * Significantly different from control (p < 0.001). # Significantly different from E-PA within each respective dose (p < 0.001).
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Figure 1: The effect of various lipids on the activation of mTOR signaling. C2C12 myoblasts were stimulated for 20 minutes with vehicle (Control), or 10-30 μM of soy-derived (S) phosphatidylserine (S-PS), phosphatidylinositol (S-PI), phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (S-PE), phosphatidylcholine (S-PC), PA (S-PA), lysophosphatidic acid (S-LPA), diacylglycerol (DAG), glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), or egg-derived PA (E-PA). The samples were then subjected to Western blot analysis for p70 phosphorylated on the threonine 389 residue (p70-389) and total p70. The ratio of these signals was calculated and used as a marker of mTOR signaling. Values in the graphs represent the mean + SEM and were obtained from 2–3 independent experiments (n = 4–12/group). * Significantly different from control (p < 0.001). # Significantly different from E-PA within each respective dose (p < 0.001).

Mentions: As shown in Figure 1, S-PI, S-PE, S-PC, DAG, and G3P elicited no increase in the ratio of P-p70-389 to total p70 compared to vehicle stimulated cells. In contrast, elevated mTOR signaling was observed at all tested concentrations of S-PS (529, and 558%), E-PA (206, and 221%), S-LPA (638, and 694%), and S-PA (658, and 636%; p < 0.05). In addition, S-LPA and S-PA increased mTOR signaling to a greater degree than did E-PA at all concentrations (p < 0.05).


Phosphatidic acid enhances mTOR signaling and resistance exercise induced hypertrophy.

Joy JM, Gundermann DM, Lowery RP, Jäger R, McCleary SA, Purpura M, Roberts MD, Wilson SM, Hornberger TA, Wilson JM - Nutr Metab (Lond) (2014)

The effect of various lipids on the activation of mTOR signaling. C2C12 myoblasts were stimulated for 20 minutes with vehicle (Control), or 10-30 μM of soy-derived (S) phosphatidylserine (S-PS), phosphatidylinositol (S-PI), phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (S-PE), phosphatidylcholine (S-PC), PA (S-PA), lysophosphatidic acid (S-LPA), diacylglycerol (DAG), glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), or egg-derived PA (E-PA). The samples were then subjected to Western blot analysis for p70 phosphorylated on the threonine 389 residue (p70-389) and total p70. The ratio of these signals was calculated and used as a marker of mTOR signaling. Values in the graphs represent the mean + SEM and were obtained from 2–3 independent experiments (n = 4–12/group). * Significantly different from control (p < 0.001). # Significantly different from E-PA within each respective dose (p < 0.001).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4066292&req=5

Figure 1: The effect of various lipids on the activation of mTOR signaling. C2C12 myoblasts were stimulated for 20 minutes with vehicle (Control), or 10-30 μM of soy-derived (S) phosphatidylserine (S-PS), phosphatidylinositol (S-PI), phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (S-PE), phosphatidylcholine (S-PC), PA (S-PA), lysophosphatidic acid (S-LPA), diacylglycerol (DAG), glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), or egg-derived PA (E-PA). The samples were then subjected to Western blot analysis for p70 phosphorylated on the threonine 389 residue (p70-389) and total p70. The ratio of these signals was calculated and used as a marker of mTOR signaling. Values in the graphs represent the mean + SEM and were obtained from 2–3 independent experiments (n = 4–12/group). * Significantly different from control (p < 0.001). # Significantly different from E-PA within each respective dose (p < 0.001).
Mentions: As shown in Figure 1, S-PI, S-PE, S-PC, DAG, and G3P elicited no increase in the ratio of P-p70-389 to total p70 compared to vehicle stimulated cells. In contrast, elevated mTOR signaling was observed at all tested concentrations of S-PS (529, and 558%), E-PA (206, and 221%), S-LPA (638, and 694%), and S-PA (658, and 636%; p < 0.05). In addition, S-LPA and S-PA increased mTOR signaling to a greater degree than did E-PA at all concentrations (p < 0.05).

Bottom Line: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various PA precursors and phospholipids on their ability to stimulate mTOR signaling and its ability to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance.In phase one, soy-phosphatidylserine, soy-Lyso-PA, egg-PA, and soy-PA stimulated mTOR signaling, and the effects of soy-PA (+636%) were significantly greater than egg-PA (+221%).In phase two, PA significantly increased lean body mass (+2.4 kg), cross sectional area (+1.0 cm), and leg press strength (+51.9 kg) over placebo.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, The University of Tampa, 401 W. Kennedy Blvd., Box 30 F, Tampa, FL 33606, USA.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The lipid messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a critical role in the stimulation of mTOR signaling. However, the mechanism by which PA stimulates mTOR is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various PA precursors and phospholipids on their ability to stimulate mTOR signaling and its ability to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance.

Methods: In phase one, C2C12 myoblasts cells were stimulated with different phospholipids and phospholipid precursors derived from soy and egg sources. The ratio of phosphorylated p70 (P-p70-389) to total p70 was then used as readout for mTOR signaling. In phase two, resistance trained subjects (n = 28, 21 ± 3 years, 77 ± 4 kg, 176 ± 9 cm) consumed either 750 mg PA daily or placebo and each took part in an 8 week periodized resistance training program.

Results: In phase one, soy-phosphatidylserine, soy-Lyso-PA, egg-PA, and soy-PA stimulated mTOR signaling, and the effects of soy-PA (+636%) were significantly greater than egg-PA (+221%). In phase two, PA significantly increased lean body mass (+2.4 kg), cross sectional area (+1.0 cm), and leg press strength (+51.9 kg) over placebo.

Conclusion: PA significantly activates mTOR and significantly improved responses in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and maximal strength to resistance exercise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus