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Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia I: H.M.'s Spared Retrieval Categories.

MacKay DG, Johnson LW, Fazel V, James LE - Brain Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: In Study 1, H.M. used 19 lexical categories (e.g., common nouns, verbs) and one syntactic category (noun phrases) with the same relative frequency as memory-normal controls, he used no lexical or syntactic category with less-than-normal frequency, and he used proper names (e.g., Melanie) and coordinative conjunctions (e.g., and) with reliably greater-than-normal frequency.In Study 2, H.M. overused proper names relative to controls when answering episodic memory questions about childhood experiences in speech and writing, replicating and extending Study 1 results for proper names.Based on detailed analyses of the use (and misuse) of coordinating conjunctions on the TLC, Study 3 developed a syntax-level "compensation hypothesis" for explaining why H.M. overused coordinating conjunctions relative to controls in Study 1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. mackay@ucla.edu.

ABSTRACT
Three studies examined amnesic H.M.'s use of words, phrases, and propositions on the Test of Language Competence (TLC). In Study 1, H.M. used 19 lexical categories (e.g., common nouns, verbs) and one syntactic category (noun phrases) with the same relative frequency as memory-normal controls, he used no lexical or syntactic category with less-than-normal frequency, and he used proper names (e.g., Melanie) and coordinative conjunctions (e.g., and) with reliably greater-than-normal frequency. In Study 2, H.M. overused proper names relative to controls when answering episodic memory questions about childhood experiences in speech and writing, replicating and extending Study 1 results for proper names. Based on detailed analyses of the use (and misuse) of coordinating conjunctions on the TLC, Study 3 developed a syntax-level "compensation hypothesis" for explaining why H.M. overused coordinating conjunctions relative to controls in Study 1. Present results suggested that (a) frontal mechanisms for retrieving word-, phrase-, and propositional-categories are intact in H.M., unlike in category-specific aphasia, (b) using his intact retrieval mechanisms, H.M. has developed a never-previously-observed proposition-level free association strategy to compensate for the hippocampal region damage that has impaired his mechanisms for encoding novel linguistic structures, and (c) H.M.'s overuse of proper names warrants further research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Handwritten responses to the question What is your earliest memory? with proper names italicized in a verbatim transcription. (a) H.M.: “Kindergarten was two houses from where I lived when I lived when I returned to high school. First I went to school grade in Manchester and High school in Htfd Willimantic + then E.H.” (Htfd represents Hartford; E.H. represents East Hartford). (b) Typical control participant: “My first doll “Flossie” was given to me by a favorite uncle when I was probably 4 years old”.
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brainsci-03-00262-f001: Handwritten responses to the question What is your earliest memory? with proper names italicized in a verbatim transcription. (a) H.M.: “Kindergarten was two houses from where I lived when I lived when I returned to high school. First I went to school grade in Manchester and High school in Htfd Willimantic + then E.H.” (Htfd represents Hartford; E.H. represents East Hartford). (b) Typical control participant: “My first doll “Flossie” was given to me by a favorite uncle when I was probably 4 years old”.

Mentions: With misspellings excluded, H.M. produced more uncorrected errors than the controls. H.M.’s handwritten response to the question What is your earliest memory? illustrates two such errors (see Figure 1): “school grade” instead of grade school, and “where I lived when I lived when I returned to high school”, where H.M. presumably failed to cross out when I lived, a noteworthy non-correction because (a) this error rendered his sentence ungrammatical, and (b) H.M. crossed out several lesser errors in Figure 1.


Compensating for Language Deficits in Amnesia I: H.M.'s Spared Retrieval Categories.

MacKay DG, Johnson LW, Fazel V, James LE - Brain Sci (2013)

Handwritten responses to the question What is your earliest memory? with proper names italicized in a verbatim transcription. (a) H.M.: “Kindergarten was two houses from where I lived when I lived when I returned to high school. First I went to school grade in Manchester and High school in Htfd Willimantic + then E.H.” (Htfd represents Hartford; E.H. represents East Hartford). (b) Typical control participant: “My first doll “Flossie” was given to me by a favorite uncle when I was probably 4 years old”.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061832&req=5

brainsci-03-00262-f001: Handwritten responses to the question What is your earliest memory? with proper names italicized in a verbatim transcription. (a) H.M.: “Kindergarten was two houses from where I lived when I lived when I returned to high school. First I went to school grade in Manchester and High school in Htfd Willimantic + then E.H.” (Htfd represents Hartford; E.H. represents East Hartford). (b) Typical control participant: “My first doll “Flossie” was given to me by a favorite uncle when I was probably 4 years old”.
Mentions: With misspellings excluded, H.M. produced more uncorrected errors than the controls. H.M.’s handwritten response to the question What is your earliest memory? illustrates two such errors (see Figure 1): “school grade” instead of grade school, and “where I lived when I lived when I returned to high school”, where H.M. presumably failed to cross out when I lived, a noteworthy non-correction because (a) this error rendered his sentence ungrammatical, and (b) H.M. crossed out several lesser errors in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: In Study 1, H.M. used 19 lexical categories (e.g., common nouns, verbs) and one syntactic category (noun phrases) with the same relative frequency as memory-normal controls, he used no lexical or syntactic category with less-than-normal frequency, and he used proper names (e.g., Melanie) and coordinative conjunctions (e.g., and) with reliably greater-than-normal frequency.In Study 2, H.M. overused proper names relative to controls when answering episodic memory questions about childhood experiences in speech and writing, replicating and extending Study 1 results for proper names.Based on detailed analyses of the use (and misuse) of coordinating conjunctions on the TLC, Study 3 developed a syntax-level "compensation hypothesis" for explaining why H.M. overused coordinating conjunctions relative to controls in Study 1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Psychology Department, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. mackay@ucla.edu.

ABSTRACT
Three studies examined amnesic H.M.'s use of words, phrases, and propositions on the Test of Language Competence (TLC). In Study 1, H.M. used 19 lexical categories (e.g., common nouns, verbs) and one syntactic category (noun phrases) with the same relative frequency as memory-normal controls, he used no lexical or syntactic category with less-than-normal frequency, and he used proper names (e.g., Melanie) and coordinative conjunctions (e.g., and) with reliably greater-than-normal frequency. In Study 2, H.M. overused proper names relative to controls when answering episodic memory questions about childhood experiences in speech and writing, replicating and extending Study 1 results for proper names. Based on detailed analyses of the use (and misuse) of coordinating conjunctions on the TLC, Study 3 developed a syntax-level "compensation hypothesis" for explaining why H.M. overused coordinating conjunctions relative to controls in Study 1. Present results suggested that (a) frontal mechanisms for retrieving word-, phrase-, and propositional-categories are intact in H.M., unlike in category-specific aphasia, (b) using his intact retrieval mechanisms, H.M. has developed a never-previously-observed proposition-level free association strategy to compensate for the hippocampal region damage that has impaired his mechanisms for encoding novel linguistic structures, and (c) H.M.'s overuse of proper names warrants further research.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus