Limits...
Non-Coding RNAs as Potential Neuroprotectants against Ischemic Brain Injury.

Kaur P, Liu F, Tan JR, Lim KY, Sepramaniam S, Karolina DS, Armugam A, Jeyaseelan K - Brain Sci (2013)

Bottom Line: Transcribed from the genome, these non-coding RNAs have been implicated in determining the biological complexity seen in mammals by acting as transcriptional and translational regulators.Non-coding RNAs, which can be sub-classified into long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs and several others, are widely expressed in the nervous system with roles in neurogenesis, development and maintenance of the neuronal phenotype.A better understanding of their expression patterns and functions has uncovered the potential use of these riboregulators as neuroprotectants to antagonize the detrimental molecular events taking place upon ischemic-reperfusion injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Neuroscience Research Centre, Centre for Translational Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 14 Medical Drive, Singapore 117599, Singapore. a0030101@nus.edu.sg.

ABSTRACT
Over the past decade, scientific discoveries have highlighted new roles for a unique class of non-coding RNAs. Transcribed from the genome, these non-coding RNAs have been implicated in determining the biological complexity seen in mammals by acting as transcriptional and translational regulators. Non-coding RNAs, which can be sub-classified into long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs and several others, are widely expressed in the nervous system with roles in neurogenesis, development and maintenance of the neuronal phenotype. Perturbations of these non-coding transcripts have been observed in ischemic preconditioning as well as ischemic brain injury with characterization of the mechanisms by which they confer toxicity. Their dysregulation may also confer pathogenic conditions in neurovascular diseases. A better understanding of their expression patterns and functions has uncovered the potential use of these riboregulators as neuroprotectants to antagonize the detrimental molecular events taking place upon ischemic-reperfusion injury. In this review, we discuss the various roles of non-coding RNAs in brain development and their mechanisms of gene regulation in relation to ischemic brain injury. We will also address the future directions and open questions for identifying promising non-coding RNAs that could eventually serve as potential neuroprotectants against ischemic brain injury.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biogenesis and function of the major ncRNAs (miRNAs, piRNAs, lncRNAs) implicated in ischemic injury.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061830&req=5

brainsci-03-00360-f001: Biogenesis and function of the major ncRNAs (miRNAs, piRNAs, lncRNAs) implicated in ischemic injury.

Mentions: Biogenesis of miRNAs is initiated by RNA polymerase II mediated transcription. miRNAs can exist as an independent gene or be located in introns of protein-coding genes (mirtrons) to give rise to primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) (Figure 1). The folded pri-miRNA hairpins are cleaved by Drosha in the nucleus, exported into the cytoplasm and subsequently cleaved by Dicer to produce ~20 nt miRNA/miRNA* duplexes. The strand with a less thermodynamically stable 5′ end usually acts as the mature miRNA whereas the other strand is degraded. In certain cases, both strands are viable and become functional miRNAs. Thereafter, a mature miRNA is incorporated into a multiprotein complex known as the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which also contains Argonaute proteins, to form miRISC. In the miRISC formation, miRNAs base pair to target mRNAs, generally on the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) and induce their translational repression or deadenylation and degradation [49]. Recent findings demonstrate that miRNAs are also capable of regulating gene expression at the transcriptional level [50,51,52].


Non-Coding RNAs as Potential Neuroprotectants against Ischemic Brain Injury.

Kaur P, Liu F, Tan JR, Lim KY, Sepramaniam S, Karolina DS, Armugam A, Jeyaseelan K - Brain Sci (2013)

Biogenesis and function of the major ncRNAs (miRNAs, piRNAs, lncRNAs) implicated in ischemic injury.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061830&req=5

brainsci-03-00360-f001: Biogenesis and function of the major ncRNAs (miRNAs, piRNAs, lncRNAs) implicated in ischemic injury.
Mentions: Biogenesis of miRNAs is initiated by RNA polymerase II mediated transcription. miRNAs can exist as an independent gene or be located in introns of protein-coding genes (mirtrons) to give rise to primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs) (Figure 1). The folded pri-miRNA hairpins are cleaved by Drosha in the nucleus, exported into the cytoplasm and subsequently cleaved by Dicer to produce ~20 nt miRNA/miRNA* duplexes. The strand with a less thermodynamically stable 5′ end usually acts as the mature miRNA whereas the other strand is degraded. In certain cases, both strands are viable and become functional miRNAs. Thereafter, a mature miRNA is incorporated into a multiprotein complex known as the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which also contains Argonaute proteins, to form miRISC. In the miRISC formation, miRNAs base pair to target mRNAs, generally on the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) and induce their translational repression or deadenylation and degradation [49]. Recent findings demonstrate that miRNAs are also capable of regulating gene expression at the transcriptional level [50,51,52].

Bottom Line: Transcribed from the genome, these non-coding RNAs have been implicated in determining the biological complexity seen in mammals by acting as transcriptional and translational regulators.Non-coding RNAs, which can be sub-classified into long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs and several others, are widely expressed in the nervous system with roles in neurogenesis, development and maintenance of the neuronal phenotype.A better understanding of their expression patterns and functions has uncovered the potential use of these riboregulators as neuroprotectants to antagonize the detrimental molecular events taking place upon ischemic-reperfusion injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry and Neuroscience Research Centre, Centre for Translational Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 14 Medical Drive, Singapore 117599, Singapore. a0030101@nus.edu.sg.

ABSTRACT
Over the past decade, scientific discoveries have highlighted new roles for a unique class of non-coding RNAs. Transcribed from the genome, these non-coding RNAs have been implicated in determining the biological complexity seen in mammals by acting as transcriptional and translational regulators. Non-coding RNAs, which can be sub-classified into long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs, PIWI-interacting RNAs and several others, are widely expressed in the nervous system with roles in neurogenesis, development and maintenance of the neuronal phenotype. Perturbations of these non-coding transcripts have been observed in ischemic preconditioning as well as ischemic brain injury with characterization of the mechanisms by which they confer toxicity. Their dysregulation may also confer pathogenic conditions in neurovascular diseases. A better understanding of their expression patterns and functions has uncovered the potential use of these riboregulators as neuroprotectants to antagonize the detrimental molecular events taking place upon ischemic-reperfusion injury. In this review, we discuss the various roles of non-coding RNAs in brain development and their mechanisms of gene regulation in relation to ischemic brain injury. We will also address the future directions and open questions for identifying promising non-coding RNAs that could eventually serve as potential neuroprotectants against ischemic brain injury.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus