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Forced exercise enhances functional recovery after focal cerebral ischemia in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Park S, Shin J, Hong Y, Kim S, Lee S, Park K, Lkhagvasuren T, Lee SR, Chang KT, Hong Y - Brain Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: Expression of caveolins was decreased in MCAo brain tissue, whereas the levels of iNOS and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased.Additionally, LC3-II and beclin-1 levels were elevated in the MCAo groups.These results suggest that forced exercise may be beneficial for promoting functional recovery following cerebral ischemia through caveolin-dependent mechanisms or interactions between caveolins and these signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular & Metabolic Disease Center, College of Biomedical Science & Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749, Korea. charm-soo@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Caveolin is the principal protein of caveolae and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. To investigate whether changed expression of caveolins has a pivotal role in focal cerebral ischemia, we induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-reperfusion and examined expression of caveolins, inflammatory activation markers, and mediators of autophagic cell death. We also treated MCAo rats with forced exercise to determine its effects on neurological outcome. Particularly, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used to compare the effects of hypertension on focal cerebral ischemia. All MCAo groups showed neurological deficiencies, motor dysfunction, and disruption of balancing ability; however, these pathological changes were more severe in SHR than WKY rats. Expression of caveolins was decreased in MCAo brain tissue, whereas the levels of iNOS and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased. Additionally, LC3-II and beclin-1 levels were elevated in the MCAo groups. Forced exercise attenuated both molecular and behavioral changes in MCAo animals, but SHR rats showed delayed functional recovery and residual molecular changes when compared to WKY rats. These results suggest that forced exercise may be beneficial for promoting functional recovery following cerebral ischemia through caveolin-dependent mechanisms or interactions between caveolins and these signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Neurological dysfunction in WKY and SHR rats with sham or MCAo surgery. (a) Paralytic forelimb was flexed during tail suspension (arrow). (b) Spontaneous circling was shown on the paretic side. (c) Decreased grip power of the left forelimb when the tail was pulled.
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brainsci-02-00483-f003: Neurological dysfunction in WKY and SHR rats with sham or MCAo surgery. (a) Paralytic forelimb was flexed during tail suspension (arrow). (b) Spontaneous circling was shown on the paretic side. (c) Decreased grip power of the left forelimb when the tail was pulled.

Mentions: WKY and SHR rats with MCAo showed typical neurologic and motor dysfunction. The paretic forelimb was flexed during tail suspension (Figure 3a) and spontaneous circling (Figure 3b) was noted to the paretic side. Grip strength in the paretic forelimb (Figure 3c) was also decreased while the tail was pulled. Neurological deficiency was scored by mNSS, and these scores in MCAo WKY and SHR rats were increased compared with those of the Sham groups (p < 0.01). Also, the mNSS scores in the MCAo + Ex group were significantly lower compared to untreated WKY MCAo animals (p < 0.05), but not SHR MCAo rats. In addition, mNSS scores of MCAo group in SHR were higher than WKY-MCAo groups (p < 0.05), and also WKY MCAo + Ex group mNSS scores were improved compared with the SHR MCAo + Ex group (p < 0.05). This suggests that SHR showed more severe neurological disability due to MCAo surgery than WKY, also recovery from neurological deficiency in SHR rats was delayed compared to that in WKY rats (see Table 1). The beam-walking test scores of the MCAo groups were lower compared to WKY and SHR Sham groups (p < 0.01). Beam-walking test scores in the WKY MCAo + Ex group improved significantly compared to MCAo only WKY controls (p < 0.05). However, no improvement in beam-walking score was noted in SHR rats after forced exercise (see Table 1). The hindlimb stride width of MCAo groups increased compared to WKY and SHR Sham groups (p < 0.01). The hindlimb stride width of the MCAo + Ex groups decreased significantly compared to the WKY and SHR MCAo groups (p < 0.01) (see Table 1). These results suggest that forced exercise has therapeutic effects on neurological deficiency and motor dysfunction due to MCAo.


Forced exercise enhances functional recovery after focal cerebral ischemia in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Park S, Shin J, Hong Y, Kim S, Lee S, Park K, Lkhagvasuren T, Lee SR, Chang KT, Hong Y - Brain Sci (2012)

Neurological dysfunction in WKY and SHR rats with sham or MCAo surgery. (a) Paralytic forelimb was flexed during tail suspension (arrow). (b) Spontaneous circling was shown on the paretic side. (c) Decreased grip power of the left forelimb when the tail was pulled.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061815&req=5

brainsci-02-00483-f003: Neurological dysfunction in WKY and SHR rats with sham or MCAo surgery. (a) Paralytic forelimb was flexed during tail suspension (arrow). (b) Spontaneous circling was shown on the paretic side. (c) Decreased grip power of the left forelimb when the tail was pulled.
Mentions: WKY and SHR rats with MCAo showed typical neurologic and motor dysfunction. The paretic forelimb was flexed during tail suspension (Figure 3a) and spontaneous circling (Figure 3b) was noted to the paretic side. Grip strength in the paretic forelimb (Figure 3c) was also decreased while the tail was pulled. Neurological deficiency was scored by mNSS, and these scores in MCAo WKY and SHR rats were increased compared with those of the Sham groups (p < 0.01). Also, the mNSS scores in the MCAo + Ex group were significantly lower compared to untreated WKY MCAo animals (p < 0.05), but not SHR MCAo rats. In addition, mNSS scores of MCAo group in SHR were higher than WKY-MCAo groups (p < 0.05), and also WKY MCAo + Ex group mNSS scores were improved compared with the SHR MCAo + Ex group (p < 0.05). This suggests that SHR showed more severe neurological disability due to MCAo surgery than WKY, also recovery from neurological deficiency in SHR rats was delayed compared to that in WKY rats (see Table 1). The beam-walking test scores of the MCAo groups were lower compared to WKY and SHR Sham groups (p < 0.01). Beam-walking test scores in the WKY MCAo + Ex group improved significantly compared to MCAo only WKY controls (p < 0.05). However, no improvement in beam-walking score was noted in SHR rats after forced exercise (see Table 1). The hindlimb stride width of MCAo groups increased compared to WKY and SHR Sham groups (p < 0.01). The hindlimb stride width of the MCAo + Ex groups decreased significantly compared to the WKY and SHR MCAo groups (p < 0.01) (see Table 1). These results suggest that forced exercise has therapeutic effects on neurological deficiency and motor dysfunction due to MCAo.

Bottom Line: Expression of caveolins was decreased in MCAo brain tissue, whereas the levels of iNOS and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased.Additionally, LC3-II and beclin-1 levels were elevated in the MCAo groups.These results suggest that forced exercise may be beneficial for promoting functional recovery following cerebral ischemia through caveolin-dependent mechanisms or interactions between caveolins and these signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cardiovascular &amp; Metabolic Disease Center, College of Biomedical Science &amp; Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 621-749, Korea. charm-soo@hanmail.net.

ABSTRACT
Caveolin is the principal protein of caveolae and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. To investigate whether changed expression of caveolins has a pivotal role in focal cerebral ischemia, we induced middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo)-reperfusion and examined expression of caveolins, inflammatory activation markers, and mediators of autophagic cell death. We also treated MCAo rats with forced exercise to determine its effects on neurological outcome. Particularly, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were used to compare the effects of hypertension on focal cerebral ischemia. All MCAo groups showed neurological deficiencies, motor dysfunction, and disruption of balancing ability; however, these pathological changes were more severe in SHR than WKY rats. Expression of caveolins was decreased in MCAo brain tissue, whereas the levels of iNOS and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased. Additionally, LC3-II and beclin-1 levels were elevated in the MCAo groups. Forced exercise attenuated both molecular and behavioral changes in MCAo animals, but SHR rats showed delayed functional recovery and residual molecular changes when compared to WKY rats. These results suggest that forced exercise may be beneficial for promoting functional recovery following cerebral ischemia through caveolin-dependent mechanisms or interactions between caveolins and these signaling molecules in ischemic brain regions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus