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Cortical Activity during a Highly-Trained Resistance Exercise Movement Emphasizing Force, Power or Volume.

Flanagan SD, Dunn-Lewis C, Comstock BA, Maresh CM, Volek JS, Denegar CR, Kraemer WJ - Brain Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: EEG signals were recorded during each complete repetition and were then grouped by functional region, processed to eliminate artifacts, and averaged to compare overall differences in the magnitude and location of cortical activity between protocols over the course of six sets.The most fatiguing protocols were accompanied by the greatest increases in cortical activity.Furthermore, despite non-incremental loading and lower force levels, VOL displayed the largest increases in cortical activity over time and greatest motor and sensory activity overall.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. shawndflanagan@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Cortical activity is thought to reflect the biomechanical properties of movement (e.g., force or velocity of movement), but fatigue and movement familiarity are important factors that require additional consideration in electrophysiological research. The purpose of this within-group quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) investigation was to examine changes in cortical activity amplitude and location during four resistance exercise movement protocols emphasizing rate (PWR), magnitude (FOR), or volume (VOL) of force production, while accounting for movement familiarity and fatigue. EEG signals were recorded during each complete repetition and were then grouped by functional region, processed to eliminate artifacts, and averaged to compare overall differences in the magnitude and location of cortical activity between protocols over the course of six sets. Biomechanical, biochemical, and exertional data were collected to contextualize electrophysiological data. The most fatiguing protocols were accompanied by the greatest increases in cortical activity. Furthermore, despite non-incremental loading and lower force levels, VOL displayed the largest increases in cortical activity over time and greatest motor and sensory activity overall. Our findings suggest that cortical activity is strongly related to aspects of fatigue during a high intensity resistance exercise movement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experimental Movement and Design Process. Subjects completed 6 repetitions of the squat movement at the prescribed load for each set. All protocols included 6 sets with three minutes of rest between.
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brainsci-02-00649-f004: Experimental Movement and Design Process. Subjects completed 6 repetitions of the squat movement at the prescribed load for each set. All protocols included 6 sets with three minutes of rest between.

Mentions: Since subjects were required to perform resistance exercise at loads approaching maximal voluntary dynamic force with minimal learning effects, only those who were highly-trained in the squat exercise were included. As a result, the training state of the subjects was rare by comparison to general or recreationally trained populations. Potential subjects were screened to ensure continuous participation in intense resistance squatting exercise; all subjects used of loads in excess of 80% of 1RM at least once a week in their training. In addition, they practiced resistance exercise for a minimum of four continuous years (our population averaged 6 ± 1 years). Subjects demonstrated the ability to proficiently perform a standardized squat with an added load of at least two times their body mass on a Smith machine. The smith machine was selected because it allows subjects to perform a squat while the bar is fixed on a vertical track. The track permits movement in the sagittal plane while lessoning movement of the bar in the transverse plane, allowing investigators to directly measure velocity, power, and displacement with a linear transducer. The average squat load for their one-repetition maximum (1RM) was later determined to be 174 ± 26 kg at their first visit (the Smith machine apparatus is pictured in Figure 4). Potential subjects completed a comprehensive medical history that prohibited the use of benzodiazepines, anti-epileptic and seizure medications, or anabolic steroids; a physician cleared participating subjects for an absence of disease and fitness for vigorous exercise.


Cortical Activity during a Highly-Trained Resistance Exercise Movement Emphasizing Force, Power or Volume.

Flanagan SD, Dunn-Lewis C, Comstock BA, Maresh CM, Volek JS, Denegar CR, Kraemer WJ - Brain Sci (2012)

Experimental Movement and Design Process. Subjects completed 6 repetitions of the squat movement at the prescribed load for each set. All protocols included 6 sets with three minutes of rest between.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061814&req=5

brainsci-02-00649-f004: Experimental Movement and Design Process. Subjects completed 6 repetitions of the squat movement at the prescribed load for each set. All protocols included 6 sets with three minutes of rest between.
Mentions: Since subjects were required to perform resistance exercise at loads approaching maximal voluntary dynamic force with minimal learning effects, only those who were highly-trained in the squat exercise were included. As a result, the training state of the subjects was rare by comparison to general or recreationally trained populations. Potential subjects were screened to ensure continuous participation in intense resistance squatting exercise; all subjects used of loads in excess of 80% of 1RM at least once a week in their training. In addition, they practiced resistance exercise for a minimum of four continuous years (our population averaged 6 ± 1 years). Subjects demonstrated the ability to proficiently perform a standardized squat with an added load of at least two times their body mass on a Smith machine. The smith machine was selected because it allows subjects to perform a squat while the bar is fixed on a vertical track. The track permits movement in the sagittal plane while lessoning movement of the bar in the transverse plane, allowing investigators to directly measure velocity, power, and displacement with a linear transducer. The average squat load for their one-repetition maximum (1RM) was later determined to be 174 ± 26 kg at their first visit (the Smith machine apparatus is pictured in Figure 4). Potential subjects completed a comprehensive medical history that prohibited the use of benzodiazepines, anti-epileptic and seizure medications, or anabolic steroids; a physician cleared participating subjects for an absence of disease and fitness for vigorous exercise.

Bottom Line: EEG signals were recorded during each complete repetition and were then grouped by functional region, processed to eliminate artifacts, and averaged to compare overall differences in the magnitude and location of cortical activity between protocols over the course of six sets.The most fatiguing protocols were accompanied by the greatest increases in cortical activity.Furthermore, despite non-incremental loading and lower force levels, VOL displayed the largest increases in cortical activity over time and greatest motor and sensory activity overall.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA. shawndflanagan@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Cortical activity is thought to reflect the biomechanical properties of movement (e.g., force or velocity of movement), but fatigue and movement familiarity are important factors that require additional consideration in electrophysiological research. The purpose of this within-group quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) investigation was to examine changes in cortical activity amplitude and location during four resistance exercise movement protocols emphasizing rate (PWR), magnitude (FOR), or volume (VOL) of force production, while accounting for movement familiarity and fatigue. EEG signals were recorded during each complete repetition and were then grouped by functional region, processed to eliminate artifacts, and averaged to compare overall differences in the magnitude and location of cortical activity between protocols over the course of six sets. Biomechanical, biochemical, and exertional data were collected to contextualize electrophysiological data. The most fatiguing protocols were accompanied by the greatest increases in cortical activity. Furthermore, despite non-incremental loading and lower force levels, VOL displayed the largest increases in cortical activity over time and greatest motor and sensory activity overall. Our findings suggest that cortical activity is strongly related to aspects of fatigue during a high intensity resistance exercise movement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus