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Neuroadaptation in nicotine addiction: update on the sensitization-homeostasis model.

DiFranza JR, Huang W, King J - Brain Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: Based on clinical studies, the SH model predicts the existence of three distinct forms of neuroplasticity that are responsible for withdrawal, tolerance and the resolution of withdrawal.Over the past decade, many controversial aspects of the SH model have become well established by the literature, while some details have been disproven.We conclude by outlining directions for future research based on the updated model, and commenting on how new experimental studies can gain from the framework put forth in the SH model.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. difranzj@ummhc.org.

ABSTRACT
The role of neuronal plasticity in supporting the addictive state has generated much research and some conceptual theories. One such theory, the sensitization-homeostasis (SH) model, postulates that nicotine suppresses craving circuits, and this triggers the development of homeostatic adaptations that autonomously support craving. Based on clinical studies, the SH model predicts the existence of three distinct forms of neuroplasticity that are responsible for withdrawal, tolerance and the resolution of withdrawal. Over the past decade, many controversial aspects of the SH model have become well established by the literature, while some details have been disproven. Here we update the model based on new studies showing that nicotine dependence develops through a set sequence of symptoms in all smokers, and that the latency to withdrawal, the time it takes for withdrawal symptoms to appear during abstinence, is initially very long but shortens by several orders of magnitude over time. We conclude by outlining directions for future research based on the updated model, and commenting on how new experimental studies can gain from the framework put forth in the SH model.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The Sensitization Homeostasis Model. The Craving Generation System (CGS) is a neural network that is responsible for generating craving for substances or experiences (the output from which is represented by the arrow labeled craving). The Craving Inhibition System (CIS) signals satiation by inhibiting the CGS. Smoking cues can stimulate craving by stimulating the CGS. The dashed outline on the inhibitory arrow indicates that the CIS system is inactive.
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brainsci-02-00523-f001: The Sensitization Homeostasis Model. The Craving Generation System (CGS) is a neural network that is responsible for generating craving for substances or experiences (the output from which is represented by the arrow labeled craving). The Craving Inhibition System (CIS) signals satiation by inhibiting the CGS. Smoking cues can stimulate craving by stimulating the CGS. The dashed outline on the inhibitory arrow indicates that the CIS system is inactive.

Mentions: 1. The brain has two neural networks, a Craving Generation System and a Craving Inhibition System. The Craving Generation System is responsible for motivating appetitive behaviors, while the Craving Inhibition System quiets the Craving Generation System when satiety is achieved (Figure 1).


Neuroadaptation in nicotine addiction: update on the sensitization-homeostasis model.

DiFranza JR, Huang W, King J - Brain Sci (2012)

The Sensitization Homeostasis Model. The Craving Generation System (CGS) is a neural network that is responsible for generating craving for substances or experiences (the output from which is represented by the arrow labeled craving). The Craving Inhibition System (CIS) signals satiation by inhibiting the CGS. Smoking cues can stimulate craving by stimulating the CGS. The dashed outline on the inhibitory arrow indicates that the CIS system is inactive.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061804&req=5

brainsci-02-00523-f001: The Sensitization Homeostasis Model. The Craving Generation System (CGS) is a neural network that is responsible for generating craving for substances or experiences (the output from which is represented by the arrow labeled craving). The Craving Inhibition System (CIS) signals satiation by inhibiting the CGS. Smoking cues can stimulate craving by stimulating the CGS. The dashed outline on the inhibitory arrow indicates that the CIS system is inactive.
Mentions: 1. The brain has two neural networks, a Craving Generation System and a Craving Inhibition System. The Craving Generation System is responsible for motivating appetitive behaviors, while the Craving Inhibition System quiets the Craving Generation System when satiety is achieved (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Based on clinical studies, the SH model predicts the existence of three distinct forms of neuroplasticity that are responsible for withdrawal, tolerance and the resolution of withdrawal.Over the past decade, many controversial aspects of the SH model have become well established by the literature, while some details have been disproven.We conclude by outlining directions for future research based on the updated model, and commenting on how new experimental studies can gain from the framework put forth in the SH model.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. difranzj@ummhc.org.

ABSTRACT
The role of neuronal plasticity in supporting the addictive state has generated much research and some conceptual theories. One such theory, the sensitization-homeostasis (SH) model, postulates that nicotine suppresses craving circuits, and this triggers the development of homeostatic adaptations that autonomously support craving. Based on clinical studies, the SH model predicts the existence of three distinct forms of neuroplasticity that are responsible for withdrawal, tolerance and the resolution of withdrawal. Over the past decade, many controversial aspects of the SH model have become well established by the literature, while some details have been disproven. Here we update the model based on new studies showing that nicotine dependence develops through a set sequence of symptoms in all smokers, and that the latency to withdrawal, the time it takes for withdrawal symptoms to appear during abstinence, is initially very long but shortens by several orders of magnitude over time. We conclude by outlining directions for future research based on the updated model, and commenting on how new experimental studies can gain from the framework put forth in the SH model.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus