Limits...
Long-term effects of physical exercise on verbal learning and memory in middle-aged adults: results of a one-year follow-up study.

Hötting K, Schauenburg G, Röder B - Brain Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased.The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs.These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biological Psychology and Neuropsychology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg 20146, Germany. kirsten.hoetting@uni-hamburg.de.

ABSTRACT
A few months of physical exercise have been shown to increase cognition and to modulate brain functions in previously sedentary, mainly older adults. However, whether the preservation of newly gained cognitive capacities requires an active maintenance of the achieved fitness level during the intervention is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to test whether cardiovascular fitness one year after an exercise intervention was linked to cognitive variables. Twenty-five healthy participants (42-57 years of age) took part in a follow-up assessment one year after the end of a supervised exercise intervention. Measurements included a cardiovascular fitness test, psychometric tests of verbal learning and memory and selective attention as well as questionnaires assessing physical activity and self-efficacy beliefs. Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased. One year after the end of the physical training intervention, previously sedentary participants spent more hours exercising than prior to the intervention. The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs. These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness.

No MeSH data available.


Study design and flow diagram showing the progress of participants through the phases of the study. Approximately half of the participants of the initial intervention study were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after the training. Only these participants were invited for a follow-up study one year after the end of the supervised training.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061798&req=5

brainsci-02-00332-f001: Study design and flow diagram showing the progress of participants through the phases of the study. Approximately half of the participants of the initial intervention study were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after the training. Only these participants were invited for a follow-up study one year after the end of the supervised training.

Mentions: A summary of the study design is depicted in Figure 1. Details of the physical training and changes from the pretest (t0) to the posttest (t1) have been reported elsewhere [11]. In short: at the beginning of the study, participants were randomly assigned to either an aerobic endurance training (cycling) or a non-endurance training (stretching/coordination). Both groups exercised for 60 min twice a week for six months under the supervision of a qualified instructor. The intensity of the cycling training was adjusted to participants’ cardiovascular fitness as assessed at baseline (t0). The cycling training significantly increased the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) from t0 to t1 (post-intervention assessment). The stretching/coordination training included stretching and toning of the whole body as well as exercises to improve coordination and flexibility. This group did not significantly improve their cardiovascular fitness from t0 to t1. At the end of the posttest, participants were encouraged to continue exercising and were informed about sports facilities in their neighborhood. There was no specific instruction to continue the type of exercise which they had been randomly assigned to. Participants were invited to a follow-up session (t2) one year after t1. Based on the results of a third cardiovascular fitness test at t2, they were divided into a low- vs. high-fit group.


Long-term effects of physical exercise on verbal learning and memory in middle-aged adults: results of a one-year follow-up study.

Hötting K, Schauenburg G, Röder B - Brain Sci (2012)

Study design and flow diagram showing the progress of participants through the phases of the study. Approximately half of the participants of the initial intervention study were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after the training. Only these participants were invited for a follow-up study one year after the end of the supervised training.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061798&req=5

brainsci-02-00332-f001: Study design and flow diagram showing the progress of participants through the phases of the study. Approximately half of the participants of the initial intervention study were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after the training. Only these participants were invited for a follow-up study one year after the end of the supervised training.
Mentions: A summary of the study design is depicted in Figure 1. Details of the physical training and changes from the pretest (t0) to the posttest (t1) have been reported elsewhere [11]. In short: at the beginning of the study, participants were randomly assigned to either an aerobic endurance training (cycling) or a non-endurance training (stretching/coordination). Both groups exercised for 60 min twice a week for six months under the supervision of a qualified instructor. The intensity of the cycling training was adjusted to participants’ cardiovascular fitness as assessed at baseline (t0). The cycling training significantly increased the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) from t0 to t1 (post-intervention assessment). The stretching/coordination training included stretching and toning of the whole body as well as exercises to improve coordination and flexibility. This group did not significantly improve their cardiovascular fitness from t0 to t1. At the end of the posttest, participants were encouraged to continue exercising and were informed about sports facilities in their neighborhood. There was no specific instruction to continue the type of exercise which they had been randomly assigned to. Participants were invited to a follow-up session (t2) one year after t1. Based on the results of a third cardiovascular fitness test at t2, they were divided into a low- vs. high-fit group.

Bottom Line: Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased.The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs.These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Biological Psychology and Neuropsychology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg 20146, Germany. kirsten.hoetting@uni-hamburg.de.

ABSTRACT
A few months of physical exercise have been shown to increase cognition and to modulate brain functions in previously sedentary, mainly older adults. However, whether the preservation of newly gained cognitive capacities requires an active maintenance of the achieved fitness level during the intervention is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to test whether cardiovascular fitness one year after an exercise intervention was linked to cognitive variables. Twenty-five healthy participants (42-57 years of age) took part in a follow-up assessment one year after the end of a supervised exercise intervention. Measurements included a cardiovascular fitness test, psychometric tests of verbal learning and memory and selective attention as well as questionnaires assessing physical activity and self-efficacy beliefs. Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased. One year after the end of the physical training intervention, previously sedentary participants spent more hours exercising than prior to the intervention. The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs. These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness.

No MeSH data available.