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Anterior prefrontal contributions to implicit attention control.

Pollmann S - Brain Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: Prefrontal cortex function has traditionally been associated with explicit executive function.Here, we discuss evidence that not only lateral prefrontal cortex, but also rostral prefrontal cortex is involved in such kinds of implicit control processes.Specifically, rostral prefrontal cortex activation changes have been observed when implicitly learned spatial contingencies in a search display become invalid, requiring a change of attentional settings for optimal guidance of visual search.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental Psychology Lab, Institute of Psychology II, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Postbox 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg, Germany. stefan.pollmann@ovgu.de.

ABSTRACT
Prefrontal cortex function has traditionally been associated with explicit executive function. Recently, however, evidence has been presented that lateral prefrontal cortex is also involved in high-level cognitive processes such as task set selection or inhibition in the absence of awareness. Here, we discuss evidence that not only lateral prefrontal cortex, but also rostral prefrontal cortex is involved in such kinds of implicit control processes. Specifically, rostral prefrontal cortex activation changes have been observed when implicitly learned spatial contingencies in a search display become invalid, requiring a change of attentional settings for optimal guidance of visual search.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Frontopolar activation in repeated search contexts and target change. (Left) Schematic examples of search displays. “New” and “old” labels indicate novel and repeated configurations of “L”-shaped distractors. On the right, a display with repeated distractor configuration but new target location is shown. (Right) Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes for old and new displays in the last block before (bl5) and the first block after (bl6) target location change [46]. Group averaged BOLD-responses are shown after subtraction of -event responses. The data show a selective increase of the BOLD-response to old displays after the target location change. There was no increase (actually a decrease) in activation to new displays after target location changes. The selective increase of activation for post-change old displays shows the association of the response with the violation of target-location predictiveness of the repeated displays.
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brainsci-02-00254-f001: Frontopolar activation in repeated search contexts and target change. (Left) Schematic examples of search displays. “New” and “old” labels indicate novel and repeated configurations of “L”-shaped distractors. On the right, a display with repeated distractor configuration but new target location is shown. (Right) Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes for old and new displays in the last block before (bl5) and the first block after (bl6) target location change [46]. Group averaged BOLD-responses are shown after subtraction of -event responses. The data show a selective increase of the BOLD-response to old displays after the target location change. There was no increase (actually a decrease) in activation to new displays after target location changes. The selective increase of activation for post-change old displays shows the association of the response with the violation of target-location predictiveness of the repeated displays.

Mentions: Thus, we had evidence that the change of the target location in repeated display configurations had quickly been processed (without becoming aware) and led to the elimination of the search bias towards the old target location. We then ran an fMRI-version of the contextual change paradigm [46]. As expected, we observed a selective increase of activation for old displays after the target location change in left lateral frontopolar cortex (Figure 1). When we split our sample in half by strength of the contextual cueing effect, the frontopolar increase was stronger for the strong than the weak contextual cueing subgroup. The increase of activation was not simply a nonspecific effect due to longer search times, as correlation analyses showed. The explicit recognition test carried out at the end of the scanner session yielded no indication of explicit recognition of repeated displays.


Anterior prefrontal contributions to implicit attention control.

Pollmann S - Brain Sci (2012)

Frontopolar activation in repeated search contexts and target change. (Left) Schematic examples of search displays. “New” and “old” labels indicate novel and repeated configurations of “L”-shaped distractors. On the right, a display with repeated distractor configuration but new target location is shown. (Right) Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes for old and new displays in the last block before (bl5) and the first block after (bl6) target location change [46]. Group averaged BOLD-responses are shown after subtraction of -event responses. The data show a selective increase of the BOLD-response to old displays after the target location change. There was no increase (actually a decrease) in activation to new displays after target location changes. The selective increase of activation for post-change old displays shows the association of the response with the violation of target-location predictiveness of the repeated displays.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061792&req=5

brainsci-02-00254-f001: Frontopolar activation in repeated search contexts and target change. (Left) Schematic examples of search displays. “New” and “old” labels indicate novel and repeated configurations of “L”-shaped distractors. On the right, a display with repeated distractor configuration but new target location is shown. (Right) Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes for old and new displays in the last block before (bl5) and the first block after (bl6) target location change [46]. Group averaged BOLD-responses are shown after subtraction of -event responses. The data show a selective increase of the BOLD-response to old displays after the target location change. There was no increase (actually a decrease) in activation to new displays after target location changes. The selective increase of activation for post-change old displays shows the association of the response with the violation of target-location predictiveness of the repeated displays.
Mentions: Thus, we had evidence that the change of the target location in repeated display configurations had quickly been processed (without becoming aware) and led to the elimination of the search bias towards the old target location. We then ran an fMRI-version of the contextual change paradigm [46]. As expected, we observed a selective increase of activation for old displays after the target location change in left lateral frontopolar cortex (Figure 1). When we split our sample in half by strength of the contextual cueing effect, the frontopolar increase was stronger for the strong than the weak contextual cueing subgroup. The increase of activation was not simply a nonspecific effect due to longer search times, as correlation analyses showed. The explicit recognition test carried out at the end of the scanner session yielded no indication of explicit recognition of repeated displays.

Bottom Line: Prefrontal cortex function has traditionally been associated with explicit executive function.Here, we discuss evidence that not only lateral prefrontal cortex, but also rostral prefrontal cortex is involved in such kinds of implicit control processes.Specifically, rostral prefrontal cortex activation changes have been observed when implicitly learned spatial contingencies in a search display become invalid, requiring a change of attentional settings for optimal guidance of visual search.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Experimental Psychology Lab, Institute of Psychology II, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Postbox 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg, Germany. stefan.pollmann@ovgu.de.

ABSTRACT
Prefrontal cortex function has traditionally been associated with explicit executive function. Recently, however, evidence has been presented that lateral prefrontal cortex is also involved in high-level cognitive processes such as task set selection or inhibition in the absence of awareness. Here, we discuss evidence that not only lateral prefrontal cortex, but also rostral prefrontal cortex is involved in such kinds of implicit control processes. Specifically, rostral prefrontal cortex activation changes have been observed when implicitly learned spatial contingencies in a search display become invalid, requiring a change of attentional settings for optimal guidance of visual search.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus