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The remains of the day in dissociative amnesia.

Staniloiu A, Markowitsch HJ - Brain Sci (2012)

Bottom Line: While encoding is based on a hierarchical arrangement of memory systems from procedural to episodic-autobiographical memory, retrieval allows independence in the sense that no matter how information is encoded, it can be retrieved in any memory system.Thus, we illustrate the relations between various long-term memory systems by reviewing the spectrum of abnormalities in mnemonic processing that may arise in the dissociative amnesia-a condition that is usually characterized by a retrieval blockade of episodic-autobiographical memories and occurs in the context of psychological trauma, without evidence of brain damage on conventional structural imaging.Furthermore, we comment on the functions of implicit memories in guiding and even adaptively molding the behavior of patients with dissociative amnesia and preserving, in the absence of autonoetic consciousness, the so-called "internal coherence of life".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Physiological Psychology, University of Bielefeld, D-33501 Bielefeld, Germany. astaniloiu@uni-bielefeld.de.

ABSTRACT
Memory is not a unity, but is divided along a content axis and a time axis, respectively. Along the content dimension, five long-term memory systems are described, according to their hierarchical ontogenetic and phylogenetic organization. These memory systems are assumed to be accompanied by different levels of consciousness. While encoding is based on a hierarchical arrangement of memory systems from procedural to episodic-autobiographical memory, retrieval allows independence in the sense that no matter how information is encoded, it can be retrieved in any memory system. Thus, we illustrate the relations between various long-term memory systems by reviewing the spectrum of abnormalities in mnemonic processing that may arise in the dissociative amnesia-a condition that is usually characterized by a retrieval blockade of episodic-autobiographical memories and occurs in the context of psychological trauma, without evidence of brain damage on conventional structural imaging. Furthermore, we comment on the functions of implicit memories in guiding and even adaptively molding the behavior of patients with dissociative amnesia and preserving, in the absence of autonoetic consciousness, the so-called "internal coherence of life".

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sketch of the five long-term memory systems. Note that it is assumed that they develop both phylo- and ontogenetically from left to right.
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brainsci-02-00101-f001: Sketch of the five long-term memory systems. Note that it is assumed that they develop both phylo- and ontogenetically from left to right.

Mentions: The categorization of memory along the content dimension has emerged from data from patients with different types of memory impairments, corresponding to different types of brain lesions, neuroimaging studies of patients with memory impairments or normal subjects, animal memory research findings and human developmental studies. In the 1970s and 1980s, a revival of early conceptualizations of memory subdivisions [32] was proposed in the field of human memory research by Endel Tulving [33], and in the arena of animal research by Mortimer Mishkin [34]. Mishkin made the distinction between “habit” and “memory” systems; the habit system referred to procedures and routines, whereas the memory system was concerned with the acquisition of facts and relations between objects. Tulving initially differentiated between semantic and episodic memory, implying that semantic memory refers to general knowledge, and episodic memory to single episodes with a specific embedding in time and place. Later Tulving and other researchers expanded the categorization of memory systems, in particular by adding systems involving automatic, implicit and subconscious levels of processing—such as procedural memory and priming. Pfeifer and Bongard [35] remarked that memory has deep roots in the interaction of the body with the environment. This is also illustrated by Tulving’s [36] hierarchical model (Figure 1), which proposes that the development of memory systems starts with systems that involve processing of information (procedural memory, priming) that is devoid of the need for consciousness (anoetic), continues with conscious (noetic) systems—perceptual and then semantic memory—and apparently culminates with the emergence of the EAM system which requires autonoetic consciousness. As proposed by Vandekerckhove and Panksepp [37], and implied by the model of Tulving [36], higher forms of consciousness, such as autonoetic consciousness, are likely “embedded in the ancient affective soil of anoetic consciousness” (p. 1026). Furthermore, self consciousness is intertwined with bodily consciousness [37]. The terminologies autonoetic (“self-conscious”, or “self-aware”), noetic (“aware”) and anoetic (“not-aware”) were introduced by Tulving [38]. Anoetic consciousness is a capacity, probably common to all animals, to gain awareness of changes in stimulation. Noetic consciousness is a capacity, probably common to all animals, which can be used to gain awareness of objects, situations and states of the world, not present to senses [39]. Autonoetic consciousness entails a “sense of self in time and the ability to relive subjective experiences from the encoding context by mentally travelling back in time” [40] (p. 260).


The remains of the day in dissociative amnesia.

Staniloiu A, Markowitsch HJ - Brain Sci (2012)

Sketch of the five long-term memory systems. Note that it is assumed that they develop both phylo- and ontogenetically from left to right.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061789&req=5

brainsci-02-00101-f001: Sketch of the five long-term memory systems. Note that it is assumed that they develop both phylo- and ontogenetically from left to right.
Mentions: The categorization of memory along the content dimension has emerged from data from patients with different types of memory impairments, corresponding to different types of brain lesions, neuroimaging studies of patients with memory impairments or normal subjects, animal memory research findings and human developmental studies. In the 1970s and 1980s, a revival of early conceptualizations of memory subdivisions [32] was proposed in the field of human memory research by Endel Tulving [33], and in the arena of animal research by Mortimer Mishkin [34]. Mishkin made the distinction between “habit” and “memory” systems; the habit system referred to procedures and routines, whereas the memory system was concerned with the acquisition of facts and relations between objects. Tulving initially differentiated between semantic and episodic memory, implying that semantic memory refers to general knowledge, and episodic memory to single episodes with a specific embedding in time and place. Later Tulving and other researchers expanded the categorization of memory systems, in particular by adding systems involving automatic, implicit and subconscious levels of processing—such as procedural memory and priming. Pfeifer and Bongard [35] remarked that memory has deep roots in the interaction of the body with the environment. This is also illustrated by Tulving’s [36] hierarchical model (Figure 1), which proposes that the development of memory systems starts with systems that involve processing of information (procedural memory, priming) that is devoid of the need for consciousness (anoetic), continues with conscious (noetic) systems—perceptual and then semantic memory—and apparently culminates with the emergence of the EAM system which requires autonoetic consciousness. As proposed by Vandekerckhove and Panksepp [37], and implied by the model of Tulving [36], higher forms of consciousness, such as autonoetic consciousness, are likely “embedded in the ancient affective soil of anoetic consciousness” (p. 1026). Furthermore, self consciousness is intertwined with bodily consciousness [37]. The terminologies autonoetic (“self-conscious”, or “self-aware”), noetic (“aware”) and anoetic (“not-aware”) were introduced by Tulving [38]. Anoetic consciousness is a capacity, probably common to all animals, to gain awareness of changes in stimulation. Noetic consciousness is a capacity, probably common to all animals, which can be used to gain awareness of objects, situations and states of the world, not present to senses [39]. Autonoetic consciousness entails a “sense of self in time and the ability to relive subjective experiences from the encoding context by mentally travelling back in time” [40] (p. 260).

Bottom Line: While encoding is based on a hierarchical arrangement of memory systems from procedural to episodic-autobiographical memory, retrieval allows independence in the sense that no matter how information is encoded, it can be retrieved in any memory system.Thus, we illustrate the relations between various long-term memory systems by reviewing the spectrum of abnormalities in mnemonic processing that may arise in the dissociative amnesia-a condition that is usually characterized by a retrieval blockade of episodic-autobiographical memories and occurs in the context of psychological trauma, without evidence of brain damage on conventional structural imaging.Furthermore, we comment on the functions of implicit memories in guiding and even adaptively molding the behavior of patients with dissociative amnesia and preserving, in the absence of autonoetic consciousness, the so-called "internal coherence of life".

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Physiological Psychology, University of Bielefeld, D-33501 Bielefeld, Germany. astaniloiu@uni-bielefeld.de.

ABSTRACT
Memory is not a unity, but is divided along a content axis and a time axis, respectively. Along the content dimension, five long-term memory systems are described, according to their hierarchical ontogenetic and phylogenetic organization. These memory systems are assumed to be accompanied by different levels of consciousness. While encoding is based on a hierarchical arrangement of memory systems from procedural to episodic-autobiographical memory, retrieval allows independence in the sense that no matter how information is encoded, it can be retrieved in any memory system. Thus, we illustrate the relations between various long-term memory systems by reviewing the spectrum of abnormalities in mnemonic processing that may arise in the dissociative amnesia-a condition that is usually characterized by a retrieval blockade of episodic-autobiographical memories and occurs in the context of psychological trauma, without evidence of brain damage on conventional structural imaging. Furthermore, we comment on the functions of implicit memories in guiding and even adaptively molding the behavior of patients with dissociative amnesia and preserving, in the absence of autonoetic consciousness, the so-called "internal coherence of life".

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus