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High-resolution measurements of the multilayer ultra-structure of articular cartilage and their translational potential.

He B, Wu JP, Kirk TB, Carrino JA, Xiang C, Xu J - Arthritis Res. Ther. (2014)

Bottom Line: Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis.These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage.This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis. These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage. This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage. This review also provides an overview for micro-structural analysis of the main components of normal or osteoarthritic cartilage and discusses the potential and challenges associated with developing non-invasive high-resolution imaging techniques for both research and clinical diagnosis of early to late osteoarthritis.

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Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of collagen and elastinin articular cartilage. (A-C) Images showing zonal organization ofcollagen fibers were taken from picrosirus red-stained slides of articularcartilage from kangaroo femoral condyle. These images resembleFigure 2 of our article in [19]. (D-F) Images showing different organizations of elastinfibers in the superficial zone of articular cartilage of kangaroo femoralcondyle. These images resemble Figure 7 of ourarticle [19]. X and Y coordinates indicate images that were parallel to thecartilage surface and taken from a transverse view; X and Z coordinatesindicate images that were vertical to cartilage surface and taken from alongitudinal view.
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Figure 6: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of collagen and elastinin articular cartilage. (A-C) Images showing zonal organization ofcollagen fibers were taken from picrosirus red-stained slides of articularcartilage from kangaroo femoral condyle. These images resembleFigure 2 of our article in [19]. (D-F) Images showing different organizations of elastinfibers in the superficial zone of articular cartilage of kangaroo femoralcondyle. These images resemble Figure 7 of ourarticle [19]. X and Y coordinates indicate images that were parallel to thecartilage surface and taken from a transverse view; X and Z coordinatesindicate images that were vertical to cartilage surface and taken from alongitudinal view.

Mentions: CLSM is also a valuable tool for studying the ECM components of articularcartilage [61]. With picrosirius red staining, CLSM has led to disclosure of themultilayer structure of collagens in kangaroo articular cartilage(Figure 6A-C). The high-resolution confocal imagesclearly depict the heterogeneous arrangements of collagen fibrils in differentzones and their relationship with chondrocytes. Through the application ofelastin-specific fluorescent dye, sulforhodamine B (SRB), the localization andorganization of elastin could also be studied. Although elastin fibers aresuggested to be absent in articular cartilage by conventional histologicaltechniques [19], CLSM study has revealed a significant presence of elastin fibers inkangaroo cartilage surface and around the chondrocytes (Figure 6D-F). These data concerning the orientation and organization of theelastin fibril structure in articular cartilage will help to establish numericalmodels that assist in understanding cartilage physiology and pathology. Withappropriate fluorescent dyes, the role of CLSM for orthopedic research andclinical application is far-reaching.


High-resolution measurements of the multilayer ultra-structure of articular cartilage and their translational potential.

He B, Wu JP, Kirk TB, Carrino JA, Xiang C, Xu J - Arthritis Res. Ther. (2014)

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of collagen and elastinin articular cartilage. (A-C) Images showing zonal organization ofcollagen fibers were taken from picrosirus red-stained slides of articularcartilage from kangaroo femoral condyle. These images resembleFigure 2 of our article in [19]. (D-F) Images showing different organizations of elastinfibers in the superficial zone of articular cartilage of kangaroo femoralcondyle. These images resemble Figure 7 of ourarticle [19]. X and Y coordinates indicate images that were parallel to thecartilage surface and taken from a transverse view; X and Z coordinatesindicate images that were vertical to cartilage surface and taken from alongitudinal view.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061724&req=5

Figure 6: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of collagen and elastinin articular cartilage. (A-C) Images showing zonal organization ofcollagen fibers were taken from picrosirus red-stained slides of articularcartilage from kangaroo femoral condyle. These images resembleFigure 2 of our article in [19]. (D-F) Images showing different organizations of elastinfibers in the superficial zone of articular cartilage of kangaroo femoralcondyle. These images resemble Figure 7 of ourarticle [19]. X and Y coordinates indicate images that were parallel to thecartilage surface and taken from a transverse view; X and Z coordinatesindicate images that were vertical to cartilage surface and taken from alongitudinal view.
Mentions: CLSM is also a valuable tool for studying the ECM components of articularcartilage [61]. With picrosirius red staining, CLSM has led to disclosure of themultilayer structure of collagens in kangaroo articular cartilage(Figure 6A-C). The high-resolution confocal imagesclearly depict the heterogeneous arrangements of collagen fibrils in differentzones and their relationship with chondrocytes. Through the application ofelastin-specific fluorescent dye, sulforhodamine B (SRB), the localization andorganization of elastin could also be studied. Although elastin fibers aresuggested to be absent in articular cartilage by conventional histologicaltechniques [19], CLSM study has revealed a significant presence of elastin fibers inkangaroo cartilage surface and around the chondrocytes (Figure 6D-F). These data concerning the orientation and organization of theelastin fibril structure in articular cartilage will help to establish numericalmodels that assist in understanding cartilage physiology and pathology. Withappropriate fluorescent dyes, the role of CLSM for orthopedic research andclinical application is far-reaching.

Bottom Line: Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis.These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage.This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis. These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage. This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage. This review also provides an overview for micro-structural analysis of the main components of normal or osteoarthritic cartilage and discusses the potential and challenges associated with developing non-invasive high-resolution imaging techniques for both research and clinical diagnosis of early to late osteoarthritis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus