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High-resolution measurements of the multilayer ultra-structure of articular cartilage and their translational potential.

He B, Wu JP, Kirk TB, Carrino JA, Xiang C, Xu J - Arthritis Res. Ther. (2014)

Bottom Line: Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis.These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage.This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis. These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage. This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage. This review also provides an overview for micro-structural analysis of the main components of normal or osteoarthritic cartilage and discusses the potential and challenges associated with developing non-invasive high-resolution imaging techniques for both research and clinical diagnosis of early to late osteoarthritis.

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Confocal laser scanning microscopy images showing cellular differencesbetween wild-type and dedicator of cytokinesis 2(Dock2) gene mutant mice. (A,B) The morphologyof healthy chondrocytes in the superficial zone of articular cartilage fromwild-type mice. (C,D) The loss of chondrocytes in the superficialzone of the articular cartilage from Dock2 gene mutant mice. X andY coordinates indicate images that were parallel to the cartilage surfaceand taken from a transverse view.
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Figure 5: Confocal laser scanning microscopy images showing cellular differencesbetween wild-type and dedicator of cytokinesis 2(Dock2) gene mutant mice. (A,B) The morphologyof healthy chondrocytes in the superficial zone of articular cartilage fromwild-type mice. (C,D) The loss of chondrocytes in the superficialzone of the articular cartilage from Dock2 gene mutant mice. X andY coordinates indicate images that were parallel to the cartilage surfaceand taken from a transverse view.

Mentions: In the field of cartilage research, CLSM is widely used in the study ofchondrocytes. Figure 4 shows typical images ofchondrocytes in native kangaroo articular cartilage. The organization ofchondrocytes from different loading locations (Figure 4A,B) and the zonal arrangements of the chondrocytes from cartilagesurface to the deep zone have been clearly demonstrated (Figure 4C). CLSM has also shown its capacity to detect physiologicalchanges in chondrocytes with a specific gene mutation (Figure 5). Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (Dock2) is a protein involvedin intracellular signaling networks and closely related to lymphocyte migrationand maturation [57]. Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea to inducesingle-nucleotide mutation of Dock2 gene [58], a CLSM study has revealed the loss of chondrocytes in the superficialzone of femoral condyle articular cartilage of mice (Figure 5). CLSM has also assisted in unraveling chondron structure [4], changes of chondrocytes in cartilage pathology [1,3], factors affecting chondrocyte physiology [59], and the role of chondrocytes in ECM metabolism [60]. Because of the pivotal role of chondrocytes in articular cartilage,the utilization of CLSM in chondrocyte imaging will surely continue to benefit thestudy of articular cartilage.


High-resolution measurements of the multilayer ultra-structure of articular cartilage and their translational potential.

He B, Wu JP, Kirk TB, Carrino JA, Xiang C, Xu J - Arthritis Res. Ther. (2014)

Confocal laser scanning microscopy images showing cellular differencesbetween wild-type and dedicator of cytokinesis 2(Dock2) gene mutant mice. (A,B) The morphologyof healthy chondrocytes in the superficial zone of articular cartilage fromwild-type mice. (C,D) The loss of chondrocytes in the superficialzone of the articular cartilage from Dock2 gene mutant mice. X andY coordinates indicate images that were parallel to the cartilage surfaceand taken from a transverse view.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061724&req=5

Figure 5: Confocal laser scanning microscopy images showing cellular differencesbetween wild-type and dedicator of cytokinesis 2(Dock2) gene mutant mice. (A,B) The morphologyof healthy chondrocytes in the superficial zone of articular cartilage fromwild-type mice. (C,D) The loss of chondrocytes in the superficialzone of the articular cartilage from Dock2 gene mutant mice. X andY coordinates indicate images that were parallel to the cartilage surfaceand taken from a transverse view.
Mentions: In the field of cartilage research, CLSM is widely used in the study ofchondrocytes. Figure 4 shows typical images ofchondrocytes in native kangaroo articular cartilage. The organization ofchondrocytes from different loading locations (Figure 4A,B) and the zonal arrangements of the chondrocytes from cartilagesurface to the deep zone have been clearly demonstrated (Figure 4C). CLSM has also shown its capacity to detect physiologicalchanges in chondrocytes with a specific gene mutation (Figure 5). Dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (Dock2) is a protein involvedin intracellular signaling networks and closely related to lymphocyte migrationand maturation [57]. Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea to inducesingle-nucleotide mutation of Dock2 gene [58], a CLSM study has revealed the loss of chondrocytes in the superficialzone of femoral condyle articular cartilage of mice (Figure 5). CLSM has also assisted in unraveling chondron structure [4], changes of chondrocytes in cartilage pathology [1,3], factors affecting chondrocyte physiology [59], and the role of chondrocytes in ECM metabolism [60]. Because of the pivotal role of chondrocytes in articular cartilage,the utilization of CLSM in chondrocyte imaging will surely continue to benefit thestudy of articular cartilage.

Bottom Line: Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis.These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage.This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis. These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage. This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage. This review also provides an overview for micro-structural analysis of the main components of normal or osteoarthritic cartilage and discusses the potential and challenges associated with developing non-invasive high-resolution imaging techniques for both research and clinical diagnosis of early to late osteoarthritis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus