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High-resolution measurements of the multilayer ultra-structure of articular cartilage and their translational potential.

He B, Wu JP, Kirk TB, Carrino JA, Xiang C, Xu J - Arthritis Res. Ther. (2014)

Bottom Line: Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis.These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage.This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis. These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage. This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage. This review also provides an overview for micro-structural analysis of the main components of normal or osteoarthritic cartilage and discusses the potential and challenges associated with developing non-invasive high-resolution imaging techniques for both research and clinical diagnosis of early to late osteoarthritis.

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Magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical imaging of normal articularcartilage. Sagittal intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo -repetition time/echo time: 3100/35 - with superimposed biochemicalimaging colorized maps (left = T1 rho andright = T2) shows normal articular cartilage. Notethree-layered cartilage appearances.
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Figure 3: Magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical imaging of normal articularcartilage. Sagittal intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo -repetition time/echo time: 3100/35 - with superimposed biochemicalimaging colorized maps (left = T1 rho andright = T2) shows normal articular cartilage. Notethree-layered cartilage appearances.

Mentions: T2 mapping measures the collagen content within the ECM of cartilage byassessing the changing interactions between water molecules and collagen. T2maps are strongly influenced by orientation of collagen molecules anddipole-dipole interaction anisotropy [36]. Thus, T2 mapping values increase from deep to superficial layers inthe healthy articular cartilage (Figure 3, right).Any injury to the cartilage in the form of degeneration or trauma (or both)increases the amount of internal free water and therefore increases theT2-signal intensity [37]. Decreased T2 values reflect water-content loss seen in cartilagedegeneration, fibrocartilage, or chondrocalcinosis. T2 maps have been found tocorrelate with activity levels in asymptomatic subjects [38].


High-resolution measurements of the multilayer ultra-structure of articular cartilage and their translational potential.

He B, Wu JP, Kirk TB, Carrino JA, Xiang C, Xu J - Arthritis Res. Ther. (2014)

Magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical imaging of normal articularcartilage. Sagittal intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo -repetition time/echo time: 3100/35 - with superimposed biochemicalimaging colorized maps (left = T1 rho andright = T2) shows normal articular cartilage. Notethree-layered cartilage appearances.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061724&req=5

Figure 3: Magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical imaging of normal articularcartilage. Sagittal intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo -repetition time/echo time: 3100/35 - with superimposed biochemicalimaging colorized maps (left = T1 rho andright = T2) shows normal articular cartilage. Notethree-layered cartilage appearances.
Mentions: T2 mapping measures the collagen content within the ECM of cartilage byassessing the changing interactions between water molecules and collagen. T2maps are strongly influenced by orientation of collagen molecules anddipole-dipole interaction anisotropy [36]. Thus, T2 mapping values increase from deep to superficial layers inthe healthy articular cartilage (Figure 3, right).Any injury to the cartilage in the form of degeneration or trauma (or both)increases the amount of internal free water and therefore increases theT2-signal intensity [37]. Decreased T2 values reflect water-content loss seen in cartilagedegeneration, fibrocartilage, or chondrocalcinosis. T2 maps have been found tocorrelate with activity levels in asymptomatic subjects [38].

Bottom Line: Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis.These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage.This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Current musculoskeletal imaging techniques usually target the macro-morphology of articular cartilage or use histological analysis. These techniques are able to reveal advanced osteoarthritic changes in articular cartilage but fail to give detailed information to distinguish early osteoarthritis from healthy cartilage, and this necessitates high-resolution imaging techniques measuring cells and the extracellular matrix within the multilayer structure of articular cartilage. This review provides a comprehensive exploration of the cellular components and extracellular matrix of articular cartilage as well as high-resolution imaging techniques, including magnetic resonance image, electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, second harmonic generation microscopy, and laser scanning confocal arthroscopy, in the measurement of multilayer ultra-structures of articular cartilage. This review also provides an overview for micro-structural analysis of the main components of normal or osteoarthritic cartilage and discusses the potential and challenges associated with developing non-invasive high-resolution imaging techniques for both research and clinical diagnosis of early to late osteoarthritis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus