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Elevated O₃ enhances the attraction of whitefly-infested tomato plants to Encarsia formosa.

Cui H, Su J, Wei J, Hu Y, Ge F - Sci Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: Formosa.The 35S plants were preferred by adult E. formosa under O₃, herbivory and O₃+herbivory treatments.Such changes suggest that the direct and indirect defences of resistant genotypes, such as 35S, could strengthen as the atmospheric O₃ concentration increases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, PR of China [2] College of Life Science, Yangtze University, Hubei 434023, PR of China.

ABSTRACT
We experimentally examined the effects of elevated O₃ and whitefly herbivory on tomato volatiles, feeding and oviposition preferences of whiteflies and behavioural responses of Encarsia formosa to these emissions on two tomato genotypes, a wild-type (Wt) and a jasmonic acid (JA) defence-enhanced genotype (JA-OE, 35S). The O₃ level and whitefly herbivory significantly increased the total amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), monoterpenes, green leaf volatiles (GLVs), and aldehyde volatiles produced by tomato plants. The 35S plants released higher amount of total VOCs and monoterpene volatiles than Wt plants under O₃+herbivory treatments. The feeding and oviposition bioassays showed that control plants were preferred by adult whiteflies whereas the 35S plants were not preferred by whiteflies. In the Y-tube tests, O₃+herbivory treatment genotypes were preferred by adult E. Formosa. The 35S plants were preferred by adult E. formosa under O₃, herbivory and O₃+herbivory treatments. Our results demonstrated that elevated O₃ and whitefly herbivory significantly increased tomato volatiles, which attracted E. formosa and reduced whitefly feeding. The 35S plants had a higher resistance to B. tabaci than Wt plant. Such changes suggest that the direct and indirect defences of resistant genotypes, such as 35S, could strengthen as the atmospheric O₃ concentration increases.

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Effects of elevated O3 levels and whitefly infestation after three weeks on the behavioural responses of E. formosa to the two host tomato genotypes (A). Effects of the tomato genotypes on the behavioural responses of E. formosa after three weeks under four treatments (B). X2 test was used for differences between the numbers of E. Formosa in each arm (*, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ns, non significant).
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f4: Effects of elevated O3 levels and whitefly infestation after three weeks on the behavioural responses of E. formosa to the two host tomato genotypes (A). Effects of the tomato genotypes on the behavioural responses of E. formosa after three weeks under four treatments (B). X2 test was used for differences between the numbers of E. Formosa in each arm (*, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ns, non significant).

Mentions: In a two-choice behavioural assay, O3+herbivory treatment plants were preferred by adult E. formosa for the two tomato genotypes in the Y-tube tests (Fig. 4A). Control treatment plants were not preferred by adult E. formosa for the two tomato genotypes in the Y-tube tests (Fig. 4A).


Elevated O₃ enhances the attraction of whitefly-infested tomato plants to Encarsia formosa.

Cui H, Su J, Wei J, Hu Y, Ge F - Sci Rep (2014)

Effects of elevated O3 levels and whitefly infestation after three weeks on the behavioural responses of E. formosa to the two host tomato genotypes (A). Effects of the tomato genotypes on the behavioural responses of E. formosa after three weeks under four treatments (B). X2 test was used for differences between the numbers of E. Formosa in each arm (*, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ns, non significant).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061550&req=5

f4: Effects of elevated O3 levels and whitefly infestation after three weeks on the behavioural responses of E. formosa to the two host tomato genotypes (A). Effects of the tomato genotypes on the behavioural responses of E. formosa after three weeks under four treatments (B). X2 test was used for differences between the numbers of E. Formosa in each arm (*, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ns, non significant).
Mentions: In a two-choice behavioural assay, O3+herbivory treatment plants were preferred by adult E. formosa for the two tomato genotypes in the Y-tube tests (Fig. 4A). Control treatment plants were not preferred by adult E. formosa for the two tomato genotypes in the Y-tube tests (Fig. 4A).

Bottom Line: Formosa.The 35S plants were preferred by adult E. formosa under O₃, herbivory and O₃+herbivory treatments.Such changes suggest that the direct and indirect defences of resistant genotypes, such as 35S, could strengthen as the atmospheric O₃ concentration increases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, PR of China [2] College of Life Science, Yangtze University, Hubei 434023, PR of China.

ABSTRACT
We experimentally examined the effects of elevated O₃ and whitefly herbivory on tomato volatiles, feeding and oviposition preferences of whiteflies and behavioural responses of Encarsia formosa to these emissions on two tomato genotypes, a wild-type (Wt) and a jasmonic acid (JA) defence-enhanced genotype (JA-OE, 35S). The O₃ level and whitefly herbivory significantly increased the total amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), monoterpenes, green leaf volatiles (GLVs), and aldehyde volatiles produced by tomato plants. The 35S plants released higher amount of total VOCs and monoterpene volatiles than Wt plants under O₃+herbivory treatments. The feeding and oviposition bioassays showed that control plants were preferred by adult whiteflies whereas the 35S plants were not preferred by whiteflies. In the Y-tube tests, O₃+herbivory treatment genotypes were preferred by adult E. Formosa. The 35S plants were preferred by adult E. formosa under O₃, herbivory and O₃+herbivory treatments. Our results demonstrated that elevated O₃ and whitefly herbivory significantly increased tomato volatiles, which attracted E. formosa and reduced whitefly feeding. The 35S plants had a higher resistance to B. tabaci than Wt plant. Such changes suggest that the direct and indirect defences of resistant genotypes, such as 35S, could strengthen as the atmospheric O₃ concentration increases.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus