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Food and beverage portion sizes in Australian children: a secondary analysis of 1995 and 2007 national data.

Collins K, Watson JF, Collins CE - BMC Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: Differences were found across survey years in median portion size of common foods and beverages assessed by 24-hour recalls for age and sex categories.No significant changes were detected for many items including white and wholemeal bread, mincemeat, chocolate and soft drink.Knowledge of usual portion sizes could inform programs targeting appropriate serving sizes selection in children and adolescents.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, HA12 Hunter Building, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. clare.collins@newcastle.edu.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: Portion size of foods is reported to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence. However, evidence of changes in portion size for commonly consumed foods in Australia is lacking. The aim was to evaluate whether Australian child and adolescent portion sizes of selected foods changed from 1995 to 2007.

Methods: Time-series study, comparing dietary data from two national cross-sectional surveys in nationally representative population survey of Australian households. The dietary data was from children aged 2-16 years who participated in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 2198) and 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 4799).

Results: Differences were found across survey years in median portion size of common foods and beverages assessed by 24-hour recalls for age and sex categories. Of the 61 foods items evaluated across the whole population sample, portion size increased in 18 items, decreased in 22, with no change in 20, although the magnitude of change varied by age and sex. Decreases in portion size were detected for most dairy products, breakfast cereal, some packaged snack foods and vegetables, p < 0.0001. Increases were detected for cooked chicken, mixed chicken dishes, bacon and ham (p < 0.0001), cooked meat (p < 0.05), fish (p < 0.01) and pizza (p < 0.0001). No significant changes were detected for many items including white and wholemeal bread, mincemeat, chocolate and soft drink.

Conclusions: Small changes in portion sizes were detected over 12 years in Australian children and adolescents with the degree of change varying by sex, age and food group. Knowledge of usual portion sizes could inform programs targeting appropriate serving sizes selection in children and adolescents.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow chart describing data manipulation process.
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Figure 1: Flow chart describing data manipulation process.

Mentions: The data manipulation process is detailed in Figure 1. Unpublished portion size data for each survey was obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Of the two 24-hour recalls collected in the 2007 ANCNPAS only the first (CAPI, 3-pass) was used for analysis to increase the comparability with the 1995 NNS dietary data collected by a three-pass, face-to-face 24 hour recall. The Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey (ACAES) Food Frequency Questionnaire[31] was used to categorize foods from each data set for analysis (Additional file1: Table S1). The food included in the ACAES were derived from focus groups with the target population and designed to include foods that make up the majority of the dietary intakes of Australian children, which was determined by conducting focus groups during the development of the survey[31]. A total of 126 foods were considered for analysis. Implausible intakes from the two national nutrition surveys were excluded based on total daily energy intake using cut-offs from previous research in this age group[32]. In addition, foods were excluded if their consumption rate was less than 5% for the respondents from the 2007 survey population (see Additional file1: Tables S2 and S3). Cordial was excluded from the analysis due to the inconsistent reporting used in data collection meaning that comparisons could not be made.


Food and beverage portion sizes in Australian children: a secondary analysis of 1995 and 2007 national data.

Collins K, Watson JF, Collins CE - BMC Public Health (2014)

Flow chart describing data manipulation process.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061520&req=5

Figure 1: Flow chart describing data manipulation process.
Mentions: The data manipulation process is detailed in Figure 1. Unpublished portion size data for each survey was obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Of the two 24-hour recalls collected in the 2007 ANCNPAS only the first (CAPI, 3-pass) was used for analysis to increase the comparability with the 1995 NNS dietary data collected by a three-pass, face-to-face 24 hour recall. The Australian Child and Adolescent Eating Survey (ACAES) Food Frequency Questionnaire[31] was used to categorize foods from each data set for analysis (Additional file1: Table S1). The food included in the ACAES were derived from focus groups with the target population and designed to include foods that make up the majority of the dietary intakes of Australian children, which was determined by conducting focus groups during the development of the survey[31]. A total of 126 foods were considered for analysis. Implausible intakes from the two national nutrition surveys were excluded based on total daily energy intake using cut-offs from previous research in this age group[32]. In addition, foods were excluded if their consumption rate was less than 5% for the respondents from the 2007 survey population (see Additional file1: Tables S2 and S3). Cordial was excluded from the analysis due to the inconsistent reporting used in data collection meaning that comparisons could not be made.

Bottom Line: Differences were found across survey years in median portion size of common foods and beverages assessed by 24-hour recalls for age and sex categories.No significant changes were detected for many items including white and wholemeal bread, mincemeat, chocolate and soft drink.Knowledge of usual portion sizes could inform programs targeting appropriate serving sizes selection in children and adolescents.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, HA12 Hunter Building, University Drive, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia. clare.collins@newcastle.edu.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: Portion size of foods is reported to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence. However, evidence of changes in portion size for commonly consumed foods in Australia is lacking. The aim was to evaluate whether Australian child and adolescent portion sizes of selected foods changed from 1995 to 2007.

Methods: Time-series study, comparing dietary data from two national cross-sectional surveys in nationally representative population survey of Australian households. The dietary data was from children aged 2-16 years who participated in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (n = 2198) and 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (n = 4799).

Results: Differences were found across survey years in median portion size of common foods and beverages assessed by 24-hour recalls for age and sex categories. Of the 61 foods items evaluated across the whole population sample, portion size increased in 18 items, decreased in 22, with no change in 20, although the magnitude of change varied by age and sex. Decreases in portion size were detected for most dairy products, breakfast cereal, some packaged snack foods and vegetables, p < 0.0001. Increases were detected for cooked chicken, mixed chicken dishes, bacon and ham (p < 0.0001), cooked meat (p < 0.05), fish (p < 0.01) and pizza (p < 0.0001). No significant changes were detected for many items including white and wholemeal bread, mincemeat, chocolate and soft drink.

Conclusions: Small changes in portion sizes were detected over 12 years in Australian children and adolescents with the degree of change varying by sex, age and food group. Knowledge of usual portion sizes could inform programs targeting appropriate serving sizes selection in children and adolescents.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus