Multiannual patterns of influenza A transmission in Chinese live bird market systems.
Bottom Line: However, predicting AIV epizootics and emergence in humans is confounded by insufficient empirical data on the ecology and dynamics of AIV in poultry systems.No significant seasonality was found when all subtypes were considered together.Quantitative models of control strategies must consider multiple subtypes, hosts, and source contexts to assess the effectiveness of interventions.
Affiliation: International Institution of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.Show MeSH
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Mentions: H1, H3, H4, and H11 were overrepresented in ducks and underrepresented in all other host species, whereas H5, H6, H9, and APMV‐1 showed different, more inclusive host usage patterns (Figure 3A). H5 showed the most non‐specific host usage pattern with its random association to all hosts except for an underrepresentation in chukars and pigeons (i.e., where random association means that the subtype infects host species X in proportion with the number of samples from host species X). H6 was randomly associated with ducks and quail, overrepresented in chukars, and underrepresented in chickens, pheasants, and pigeons. H9 was overrepresented in quail and chickens, underrepresented in ducks, chukars, and pigeons, and randomly associated with pheasants and guinea fowl. APMV‐1 was overrepresented in chickens and underrepresented all other hosts except pigeons and guinea fowl where it was randomly associated. Although we were unable to include partridge in the host usage analysis (because of a difference in sampling time relative to other hosts), the infection results are worth noting because infection rates in partridge were the highest for any host species at 27·3% (Table 1). Almost all of the infections in partridge included H5 (6·4%), H6 (17·7%), H9 (73·5%), and APMV‐1 (8·4%) (Table S1). Similarly, these four subtypes caused most of the infections in other minor poultry species: pheasant, chukar, partridge, and guinea fowl (Table S1). H5 was most prevalent and caused the highest number of infections of any subtype, in domestic geese.
Affiliation: International Institution of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.