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Neuromagnetic vistas into typical and atypical development of frontal lobe functions.

Taylor MJ, Doesburg SM, Pang EW - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: The studies include facial emotional processing, inhibition, visual short-term memory, speech production, and resting-state networks.We present data from event-related analyses as well as on oscillations and connectivity analyses and review their contributions to understanding frontal lobe cognitive development.We also discuss the challenges of testing young children in the MEG and the development of age-appropriate technologies and paradigms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children , Toronto, ON , Canada ; Neuroscience and Mental Health Program, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute , Toronto, ON , Canada ; Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto , Toronto, ON , Canada ; Department of Psychology, University of Toronto , Toronto, ON , Canada ; Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto , Toronto, ON , Canada.

ABSTRACT
The frontal lobes are involved in many higher-order cognitive functions such as social cognition executive functions and language and speech. These functions are complex and follow a prolonged developmental course from childhood through to early adulthood. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is ideal for the study of development of these functions, due to its combination of temporal and spatial resolution which allows the determination of age-related changes in both neural timing and location. There are several challenges for MEG developmental studies: to design tasks appropriate to capture the neurodevelopmental trajectory of these cognitive functions, and to develop appropriate analysis strategies to capture various aspects of neuromagnetic frontal lobe activity. Here, we review our MEG research on social and executive functions, and speech in typically developing children and in two clinical groups - children with autism spectrum disorder and children born very preterm. The studies include facial emotional processing, inhibition, visual short-term memory, speech production, and resting-state networks. We present data from event-related analyses as well as on oscillations and connectivity analyses and review their contributions to understanding frontal lobe cognitive development. We also discuss the challenges of testing young children in the MEG and the development of age-appropriate technologies and paradigms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The Go/No-go protocol. Example of the stimulus sequence in the Go/No-go paradigm from our research group. Subjects were instructed to respond as quickly as possible to the variously shaped stimuli, but to withhold this pre-potent response on trials where an “X” was superimposed on the stimulus.
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Figure 1: The Go/No-go protocol. Example of the stimulus sequence in the Go/No-go paradigm from our research group. Subjects were instructed to respond as quickly as possible to the variously shaped stimuli, but to withhold this pre-potent response on trials where an “X” was superimposed on the stimulus.

Mentions: Fewer MEG studies of inhibitory control have been conducted. Our research group used MEG to investigate the maturation of spatiotemporal brain dynamics of inhibition in adolescence and early adulthood. We employed a visual Go/No-go task that included a baseline condition with many more No-go than Go trials, allowing us to compare the No-go trials between the two conditions, thereby avoiding contamination of MEG activity from motor responses (Vidal et al., 2012), seen in studies that contrast Go with No-go trials. The stimuli and sample series of stimuli from this paradigm are presented in Figure 1. Right-frontal activity beginning as early as 200 ms was observed in adults in the inhibition condition. Similar results were also reported in a prior ERP study (Bokura et al., 2001). Relative to adults, adolescents exhibited delayed frontal responses, which were also bilateral (Vidal et al., 2012). The low percentage (7%) of Go trials in the control condition, however, raised the prospect that the observed pattern of results may be attributable to an oddball effect. To address this potential confound, a follow-up study was run which included two variants of this paradigm: the frequencies of Go to No-go trials were reversed for the experimental (67:33%) and control (33:66%) conditions.


Neuromagnetic vistas into typical and atypical development of frontal lobe functions.

Taylor MJ, Doesburg SM, Pang EW - Front Hum Neurosci (2014)

The Go/No-go protocol. Example of the stimulus sequence in the Go/No-go paradigm from our research group. Subjects were instructed to respond as quickly as possible to the variously shaped stimuli, but to withhold this pre-potent response on trials where an “X” was superimposed on the stimulus.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061489&req=5

Figure 1: The Go/No-go protocol. Example of the stimulus sequence in the Go/No-go paradigm from our research group. Subjects were instructed to respond as quickly as possible to the variously shaped stimuli, but to withhold this pre-potent response on trials where an “X” was superimposed on the stimulus.
Mentions: Fewer MEG studies of inhibitory control have been conducted. Our research group used MEG to investigate the maturation of spatiotemporal brain dynamics of inhibition in adolescence and early adulthood. We employed a visual Go/No-go task that included a baseline condition with many more No-go than Go trials, allowing us to compare the No-go trials between the two conditions, thereby avoiding contamination of MEG activity from motor responses (Vidal et al., 2012), seen in studies that contrast Go with No-go trials. The stimuli and sample series of stimuli from this paradigm are presented in Figure 1. Right-frontal activity beginning as early as 200 ms was observed in adults in the inhibition condition. Similar results were also reported in a prior ERP study (Bokura et al., 2001). Relative to adults, adolescents exhibited delayed frontal responses, which were also bilateral (Vidal et al., 2012). The low percentage (7%) of Go trials in the control condition, however, raised the prospect that the observed pattern of results may be attributable to an oddball effect. To address this potential confound, a follow-up study was run which included two variants of this paradigm: the frequencies of Go to No-go trials were reversed for the experimental (67:33%) and control (33:66%) conditions.

Bottom Line: The studies include facial emotional processing, inhibition, visual short-term memory, speech production, and resting-state networks.We present data from event-related analyses as well as on oscillations and connectivity analyses and review their contributions to understanding frontal lobe cognitive development.We also discuss the challenges of testing young children in the MEG and the development of age-appropriate technologies and paradigms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children , Toronto, ON , Canada ; Neuroscience and Mental Health Program, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute , Toronto, ON , Canada ; Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto , Toronto, ON , Canada ; Department of Psychology, University of Toronto , Toronto, ON , Canada ; Department of Paediatrics, University of Toronto , Toronto, ON , Canada.

ABSTRACT
The frontal lobes are involved in many higher-order cognitive functions such as social cognition executive functions and language and speech. These functions are complex and follow a prolonged developmental course from childhood through to early adulthood. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is ideal for the study of development of these functions, due to its combination of temporal and spatial resolution which allows the determination of age-related changes in both neural timing and location. There are several challenges for MEG developmental studies: to design tasks appropriate to capture the neurodevelopmental trajectory of these cognitive functions, and to develop appropriate analysis strategies to capture various aspects of neuromagnetic frontal lobe activity. Here, we review our MEG research on social and executive functions, and speech in typically developing children and in two clinical groups - children with autism spectrum disorder and children born very preterm. The studies include facial emotional processing, inhibition, visual short-term memory, speech production, and resting-state networks. We present data from event-related analyses as well as on oscillations and connectivity analyses and review their contributions to understanding frontal lobe cognitive development. We also discuss the challenges of testing young children in the MEG and the development of age-appropriate technologies and paradigms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus