Limits...
TGF-β1 induces the formation of vascular-like structures in embryoid bodies derived from human embryonic stem cells.

Wang Y, Qian DJ, Zhong WY, Lu JH, Guo XK, Cao YL, Liu J - Exp Ther Med (2014)

Bottom Line: In the present study, the effects of extracellular TGF-β1 were investigated on human ESC-derived embryoid bodies (EB) in suspension.The frequencies of vascular-like structures and beating cells in the TGF-β1 treated group were significantly higher compared with the control group (84.31 vs. 12.77%; P<0.001; 37.25 vs. 8.51%; P<0.001, respectively).Therefore, the results of the present study may aid the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of human ESC differentiation and improve the methods of propagating specific cell types for the clinical therapy of cardiovascular diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic Surgery, Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250014, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can differentiate into endothelial cells in response to stimuli from extracellular cytokines. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling is involved in stem cell renewal and vascular development. Previously, human ESCs were isolated from inner cell mass and a stable ESC line was developed. In the present study, the effects of extracellular TGF-β1 were investigated on human ESC-derived embryoid bodies (EB) in suspension. The structures of the EBs were analyzed with light and electron microscopy, while the cellular composition of the EBs was examined via the expression levels of specific markers. Vascular-like tubular structures and cardiomyocyte-like beating cells were observed in the EBs at day 3 and 8, respectively. The frequencies of vascular-like structures and beating cells in the TGF-β1 treated group were significantly higher compared with the control group (84.31 vs. 12.77%; P<0.001; 37.25 vs. 8.51%; P<0.001, respectively). Electron microscopy revealed the presence of lumens and gap junctions in the sections of the tubular structures. Semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed elevated expression levels of CD31 and fetal liver kinase-1 in EBs cultured with TGF-β1. In addition, extensive staining of von Willebrand factor was observed in the vascular-like structures of TGF-β1-treated EBs. Therefore, the results of the present study may aid the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of human ESC differentiation and improve the methods of propagating specific cell types for the clinical therapy of cardiovascular diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Vascular-like structures of EBs were observed with electron microscopy. SEM images revealed that (A) the tube wall was composed of round and flat cells, and (B) with the elongation of tube-like structures, the tube wall became smooth. TEM images revealed that (C) vascular-like structures had lumens surrounded by flat endothelial-like cells and (D) neighboring cells were connected by tight junctions. SEM, scanning electron microscope; TEM, transmission electron microscope; EBs, embryoid bodies.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061233&req=5

f3-etm-08-01-0052: Vascular-like structures of EBs were observed with electron microscopy. SEM images revealed that (A) the tube wall was composed of round and flat cells, and (B) with the elongation of tube-like structures, the tube wall became smooth. TEM images revealed that (C) vascular-like structures had lumens surrounded by flat endothelial-like cells and (D) neighboring cells were connected by tight junctions. SEM, scanning electron microscope; TEM, transmission electron microscope; EBs, embryoid bodies.

Mentions: SEM images exhibited a three-dimensional morphology of the EBs. The tubular structures were composed of round and flat cells, which were morphologically similar to ECs (Fig. 3A). These structures joined with each other and constituted a network of tubes with a smooth surface (Fig. 3B). Further observations using a TEM revealed the presence of lumens and gap junctions in the section of tubular structures (Fig. 3C). The lumens were surrounded by several round and flat cells, which were connected by tight junctions (Fig. 3D). These structures were similar to those of capillaries during early embryo development.


TGF-β1 induces the formation of vascular-like structures in embryoid bodies derived from human embryonic stem cells.

Wang Y, Qian DJ, Zhong WY, Lu JH, Guo XK, Cao YL, Liu J - Exp Ther Med (2014)

Vascular-like structures of EBs were observed with electron microscopy. SEM images revealed that (A) the tube wall was composed of round and flat cells, and (B) with the elongation of tube-like structures, the tube wall became smooth. TEM images revealed that (C) vascular-like structures had lumens surrounded by flat endothelial-like cells and (D) neighboring cells were connected by tight junctions. SEM, scanning electron microscope; TEM, transmission electron microscope; EBs, embryoid bodies.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061233&req=5

f3-etm-08-01-0052: Vascular-like structures of EBs were observed with electron microscopy. SEM images revealed that (A) the tube wall was composed of round and flat cells, and (B) with the elongation of tube-like structures, the tube wall became smooth. TEM images revealed that (C) vascular-like structures had lumens surrounded by flat endothelial-like cells and (D) neighboring cells were connected by tight junctions. SEM, scanning electron microscope; TEM, transmission electron microscope; EBs, embryoid bodies.
Mentions: SEM images exhibited a three-dimensional morphology of the EBs. The tubular structures were composed of round and flat cells, which were morphologically similar to ECs (Fig. 3A). These structures joined with each other and constituted a network of tubes with a smooth surface (Fig. 3B). Further observations using a TEM revealed the presence of lumens and gap junctions in the section of tubular structures (Fig. 3C). The lumens were surrounded by several round and flat cells, which were connected by tight junctions (Fig. 3D). These structures were similar to those of capillaries during early embryo development.

Bottom Line: In the present study, the effects of extracellular TGF-β1 were investigated on human ESC-derived embryoid bodies (EB) in suspension.The frequencies of vascular-like structures and beating cells in the TGF-β1 treated group were significantly higher compared with the control group (84.31 vs. 12.77%; P<0.001; 37.25 vs. 8.51%; P<0.001, respectively).Therefore, the results of the present study may aid the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of human ESC differentiation and improve the methods of propagating specific cell types for the clinical therapy of cardiovascular diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plastic Surgery, Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250014, P.R. China.

ABSTRACT
Human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can differentiate into endothelial cells in response to stimuli from extracellular cytokines. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling is involved in stem cell renewal and vascular development. Previously, human ESCs were isolated from inner cell mass and a stable ESC line was developed. In the present study, the effects of extracellular TGF-β1 were investigated on human ESC-derived embryoid bodies (EB) in suspension. The structures of the EBs were analyzed with light and electron microscopy, while the cellular composition of the EBs was examined via the expression levels of specific markers. Vascular-like tubular structures and cardiomyocyte-like beating cells were observed in the EBs at day 3 and 8, respectively. The frequencies of vascular-like structures and beating cells in the TGF-β1 treated group were significantly higher compared with the control group (84.31 vs. 12.77%; P<0.001; 37.25 vs. 8.51%; P<0.001, respectively). Electron microscopy revealed the presence of lumens and gap junctions in the sections of the tubular structures. Semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed elevated expression levels of CD31 and fetal liver kinase-1 in EBs cultured with TGF-β1. In addition, extensive staining of von Willebrand factor was observed in the vascular-like structures of TGF-β1-treated EBs. Therefore, the results of the present study may aid the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of human ESC differentiation and improve the methods of propagating specific cell types for the clinical therapy of cardiovascular diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus