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Nanoparticles for hyperthermic therapy: synthesis strategies and applications in glioblastoma.

Verma J, Lal S, Van Noorden CJ - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: Despite recent advances, survival of GBM patients remains poor.Major challenges in GBM treatment are drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier, restriction of damage to healthy brain tissues, and limitation of resistance to therapies.Third, it discusses different methodologies for synthesis of each inorganic agent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA ; Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans. Current GBM treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, sometimes supplemented with novel therapies. Despite recent advances, survival of GBM patients remains poor. Major challenges in GBM treatment are drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier, restriction of damage to healthy brain tissues, and limitation of resistance to therapies. This article reviews recent advances in the application of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for hyperthermia ablation of GBM. First, the article introduces GBM, its current treatment, and hyperthermia as a potential modality for the management of GBM. Second, it introduces MNPs, GNRs, and CNTs as inorganic agents to induce hyperthermia in GBM. Third, it discusses different methodologies for synthesis of each inorganic agent. Finally, it reviews in vitro and in vivo studies in which MNPs, GNRs, and CNTs have been applied for hyperthermia ablation and drug delivery in GBM.

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Current treatment options for glioblastoma multiforme patients.Abbreviations: GBM, glioblastoma multiforme; HGG, high-grade glioma; RNA, ribonucleic acid.
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f1-ijn-9-2863: Current treatment options for glioblastoma multiforme patients.Abbreviations: GBM, glioblastoma multiforme; HGG, high-grade glioma; RNA, ribonucleic acid.

Mentions: Conventional GBM therapies consist of surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy. Objectives of surgery range from merely confirmation of the diagnosis or alleviation of symptoms due to mass effects to aggressive attempts to improve quality of life and prolong survival of the patient.3 RT is one of the oldest and most common treatment options for GBM patients. It is based on generation of electrons and free radicals by ionizing radiation to damage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Early clinical trials revealed a modest, yet undeniable efficacy of RT in treating GBM. However, there are several limitations of RT including risk of necrosis, permanent neuronal damage, and radio resistance of certain tumor types (Figure 1).4


Nanoparticles for hyperthermic therapy: synthesis strategies and applications in glioblastoma.

Verma J, Lal S, Van Noorden CJ - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Current treatment options for glioblastoma multiforme patients.Abbreviations: GBM, glioblastoma multiforme; HGG, high-grade glioma; RNA, ribonucleic acid.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061173&req=5

f1-ijn-9-2863: Current treatment options for glioblastoma multiforme patients.Abbreviations: GBM, glioblastoma multiforme; HGG, high-grade glioma; RNA, ribonucleic acid.
Mentions: Conventional GBM therapies consist of surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy. Objectives of surgery range from merely confirmation of the diagnosis or alleviation of symptoms due to mass effects to aggressive attempts to improve quality of life and prolong survival of the patient.3 RT is one of the oldest and most common treatment options for GBM patients. It is based on generation of electrons and free radicals by ionizing radiation to damage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Early clinical trials revealed a modest, yet undeniable efficacy of RT in treating GBM. However, there are several limitations of RT including risk of necrosis, permanent neuronal damage, and radio resistance of certain tumor types (Figure 1).4

Bottom Line: Despite recent advances, survival of GBM patients remains poor.Major challenges in GBM treatment are drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier, restriction of damage to healthy brain tissues, and limitation of resistance to therapies.Third, it discusses different methodologies for synthesis of each inorganic agent.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA ; Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans. Current GBM treatment includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, sometimes supplemented with novel therapies. Despite recent advances, survival of GBM patients remains poor. Major challenges in GBM treatment are drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier, restriction of damage to healthy brain tissues, and limitation of resistance to therapies. This article reviews recent advances in the application of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), gold nanorods (GNRs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for hyperthermia ablation of GBM. First, the article introduces GBM, its current treatment, and hyperthermia as a potential modality for the management of GBM. Second, it introduces MNPs, GNRs, and CNTs as inorganic agents to induce hyperthermia in GBM. Third, it discusses different methodologies for synthesis of each inorganic agent. Finally, it reviews in vitro and in vivo studies in which MNPs, GNRs, and CNTs have been applied for hyperthermia ablation and drug delivery in GBM.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus