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Physiological and behavioural responses to noxious stimuli in the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

Eckroth JR, Aas-Hansen Ø, Sneddon LU, Bichão H, Døving KB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Fish treated with 0.1% and 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin displayed increased hovering close to the bottom of the aquaria and fish given 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin also displayed a reduced use of shelter.The only effect seen in hooked fish was brief episodes of lateral head shaking which were not seen pre-treatment or in the other groups, possibly reflecting a resiliency to tissue damage in the mouth area related to the tough nature of the Atlantic cod diet.There were no differences between groups in circulatory stress indicators two hours after treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
In the present study, our aim was to compare physiological and behavioural responses to different noxious stimuli to those of a standardized innocuous stimulus, to possibly identify aversive responses indicative of injury detection in a commercially important marine teleost fish, the Atlantic cod. Individual fish were administered with a noxious stimulus to the lip under short-term general anaesthesia (MS-222). The noxious treatments included injection of 0.1% or 2% acetic acid, 0.005% or 0.1% capsaicin, or piercing the lip with a commercial fishing hook. Counts of opercular beat rate (OBR) at 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min and observations of behaviour at 30 and 90 min post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment values and with control fish injected with physiological saline, an innocuous stimulus. Circulatory levels of physiological stress indicators were determined in all fish at 120 minutes post-treatment. All treatments evoked temporarily increased OBR that returned to pre-treatment levels at 60 minutes (saline, 0.005% capsaicin, hook), 90 minutes (0.1% acetic acid, 0.1% capsaicin), or 120 minutes (2% acetic acid), but with no significant differences from the control group at any time point. Fish treated with 0.1% and 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin displayed increased hovering close to the bottom of the aquaria and fish given 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin also displayed a reduced use of shelter. The only effect seen in hooked fish was brief episodes of lateral head shaking which were not seen pre-treatment or in the other groups, possibly reflecting a resiliency to tissue damage in the mouth area related to the tough nature of the Atlantic cod diet. There were no differences between groups in circulatory stress indicators two hours after treatment. This study provides novel data on behavioural indicators that could be used to assess potentially aversive events in Atlantic cod.

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Occurrence of Shelter and Hovering on the bottom behaviours in Atlantic cod before and after saline, acetic acid, capsaicin, and fishing hook treatments.The data are expressed as mean percentage of time (%,±S.E.) the behaviour was displayed during 15 min segments at 30 min and 90 min after treatment. For each time point, identical letters denote a statistically significant (p≤0.05) difference between treatment groups (repeated measures GLM followed by post-hoc test using the Bonferroni correction). N = 7 fish per group except for 0.005% Capsaicin (N = 6) and 0.1% Capsaicin (N = 8).
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pone-0100150-g002: Occurrence of Shelter and Hovering on the bottom behaviours in Atlantic cod before and after saline, acetic acid, capsaicin, and fishing hook treatments.The data are expressed as mean percentage of time (%,±S.E.) the behaviour was displayed during 15 min segments at 30 min and 90 min after treatment. For each time point, identical letters denote a statistically significant (p≤0.05) difference between treatment groups (repeated measures GLM followed by post-hoc test using the Bonferroni correction). N = 7 fish per group except for 0.005% Capsaicin (N = 6) and 0.1% Capsaicin (N = 8).

Mentions: During the pre-treatment period all of the categorized behaviours (Table 1) were observed except for head-shaking. Two types of behaviors were significantly affected by treatments: hovering on the bottom of the aquaria (F(5,108), = 4.709 p = 0.001) and use of shelter (F(5,108) = 2.427, p = 0.050); (Figure 2; Table S2). Post hoc tests (mean % of time±S.E.) for use of shelter using the Bonferroni correction showed that 2.0% Acetic acid significantly reduced percentage of time the sheltering behaviour was observed (1.6% ±1.6 at 30 min and 0.0±0.0% at 90 min) compared with 0.1% Acetic acid (39.8±16.7% at 30 min and 43.1±20.1% at 90 min) (p = 0.033) and Saline (57.1±20.2% at 30 and 90 min) (p = 0.021). 0.1% Capsaicin also decreased the % of time the sheltering behaviour was observed (16.0±12.5% at 30 min and 18.8±13.1% at 90 min) compared with 0.1% Acetic acid (39.8±16.7% at 30 min and 43.1±20.1% at 90 min) (p = 0.020) and Saline (57.1±20.2% at 30 and 90 min) (p = 0.013). Post hoc results (Bonferroni correction, mean % of time±S.E.) associated with hovering on the bottom demonstrated that 2.0% Acetic Acid significantly increased the percentage of time (47.8±14.0% at 30 min and 21.5±6.8% at 90 min) that cod were observed hovering on the bottom of the aquaria as compared with 0.005% Capsaicin (2.8 2.2% at 30 min and 10.8±7.0% at 90 min) (p = 0.010) and Saline (2.0±1.9% at 30 min and 0.3±0.2% at 90 min) (p = 0.001). Further 0.1% Capsaicin increased the percentage of time (28.7±14.0% at 30 min and 40.2±13.5% at 90 min) cod were observed hovering on the bottom of the aquaria as compared with 0.005% Capsaicin (2.8±2.2% at 30 min and 10.8±7.0% at 90 min) (p = 0.02), Hook (19.2±8.0% at 30 min and 10.6±7.3% at 90 min) (p = 0.021) and Saline (2.0±1.9% at 30 min and 0.3±0.2% at 90 min) (p<0.001). Also, 0.1% Acetic acid increased the mean percentage of time (34.3±12.6% at 30 min and 11.5±6.7% at 90 min) cod were observed hovering on the bottom of the aquaria compared with Saline (2.0±1.9% at 30 min and 0.3±0.2% at 90 min) (p = 0.032). The analysis demonstrated that only the behaviour of hovering in the top of the tank was affected by time (F (2, 108) = 3.092, p = 0.050) with post hoc analysis showing that the total mean percentage of time this behavior was observed was significantly different between the pre-treatment observations (6.69±2.69 (mean % of time±S.E.)) and those at post 90 min (20.14±4.74 (mean % of time±S.E.); p = 0.017) for all treatments. There was no interaction of time and treatment on any of the behaviors.


Physiological and behavioural responses to noxious stimuli in the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

Eckroth JR, Aas-Hansen Ø, Sneddon LU, Bichão H, Døving KB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Occurrence of Shelter and Hovering on the bottom behaviours in Atlantic cod before and after saline, acetic acid, capsaicin, and fishing hook treatments.The data are expressed as mean percentage of time (%,±S.E.) the behaviour was displayed during 15 min segments at 30 min and 90 min after treatment. For each time point, identical letters denote a statistically significant (p≤0.05) difference between treatment groups (repeated measures GLM followed by post-hoc test using the Bonferroni correction). N = 7 fish per group except for 0.005% Capsaicin (N = 6) and 0.1% Capsaicin (N = 8).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061104&req=5

pone-0100150-g002: Occurrence of Shelter and Hovering on the bottom behaviours in Atlantic cod before and after saline, acetic acid, capsaicin, and fishing hook treatments.The data are expressed as mean percentage of time (%,±S.E.) the behaviour was displayed during 15 min segments at 30 min and 90 min after treatment. For each time point, identical letters denote a statistically significant (p≤0.05) difference between treatment groups (repeated measures GLM followed by post-hoc test using the Bonferroni correction). N = 7 fish per group except for 0.005% Capsaicin (N = 6) and 0.1% Capsaicin (N = 8).
Mentions: During the pre-treatment period all of the categorized behaviours (Table 1) were observed except for head-shaking. Two types of behaviors were significantly affected by treatments: hovering on the bottom of the aquaria (F(5,108), = 4.709 p = 0.001) and use of shelter (F(5,108) = 2.427, p = 0.050); (Figure 2; Table S2). Post hoc tests (mean % of time±S.E.) for use of shelter using the Bonferroni correction showed that 2.0% Acetic acid significantly reduced percentage of time the sheltering behaviour was observed (1.6% ±1.6 at 30 min and 0.0±0.0% at 90 min) compared with 0.1% Acetic acid (39.8±16.7% at 30 min and 43.1±20.1% at 90 min) (p = 0.033) and Saline (57.1±20.2% at 30 and 90 min) (p = 0.021). 0.1% Capsaicin also decreased the % of time the sheltering behaviour was observed (16.0±12.5% at 30 min and 18.8±13.1% at 90 min) compared with 0.1% Acetic acid (39.8±16.7% at 30 min and 43.1±20.1% at 90 min) (p = 0.020) and Saline (57.1±20.2% at 30 and 90 min) (p = 0.013). Post hoc results (Bonferroni correction, mean % of time±S.E.) associated with hovering on the bottom demonstrated that 2.0% Acetic Acid significantly increased the percentage of time (47.8±14.0% at 30 min and 21.5±6.8% at 90 min) that cod were observed hovering on the bottom of the aquaria as compared with 0.005% Capsaicin (2.8 2.2% at 30 min and 10.8±7.0% at 90 min) (p = 0.010) and Saline (2.0±1.9% at 30 min and 0.3±0.2% at 90 min) (p = 0.001). Further 0.1% Capsaicin increased the percentage of time (28.7±14.0% at 30 min and 40.2±13.5% at 90 min) cod were observed hovering on the bottom of the aquaria as compared with 0.005% Capsaicin (2.8±2.2% at 30 min and 10.8±7.0% at 90 min) (p = 0.02), Hook (19.2±8.0% at 30 min and 10.6±7.3% at 90 min) (p = 0.021) and Saline (2.0±1.9% at 30 min and 0.3±0.2% at 90 min) (p<0.001). Also, 0.1% Acetic acid increased the mean percentage of time (34.3±12.6% at 30 min and 11.5±6.7% at 90 min) cod were observed hovering on the bottom of the aquaria compared with Saline (2.0±1.9% at 30 min and 0.3±0.2% at 90 min) (p = 0.032). The analysis demonstrated that only the behaviour of hovering in the top of the tank was affected by time (F (2, 108) = 3.092, p = 0.050) with post hoc analysis showing that the total mean percentage of time this behavior was observed was significantly different between the pre-treatment observations (6.69±2.69 (mean % of time±S.E.)) and those at post 90 min (20.14±4.74 (mean % of time±S.E.); p = 0.017) for all treatments. There was no interaction of time and treatment on any of the behaviors.

Bottom Line: Fish treated with 0.1% and 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin displayed increased hovering close to the bottom of the aquaria and fish given 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin also displayed a reduced use of shelter.The only effect seen in hooked fish was brief episodes of lateral head shaking which were not seen pre-treatment or in the other groups, possibly reflecting a resiliency to tissue damage in the mouth area related to the tough nature of the Atlantic cod diet.There were no differences between groups in circulatory stress indicators two hours after treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

ABSTRACT
In the present study, our aim was to compare physiological and behavioural responses to different noxious stimuli to those of a standardized innocuous stimulus, to possibly identify aversive responses indicative of injury detection in a commercially important marine teleost fish, the Atlantic cod. Individual fish were administered with a noxious stimulus to the lip under short-term general anaesthesia (MS-222). The noxious treatments included injection of 0.1% or 2% acetic acid, 0.005% or 0.1% capsaicin, or piercing the lip with a commercial fishing hook. Counts of opercular beat rate (OBR) at 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min and observations of behaviour at 30 and 90 min post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment values and with control fish injected with physiological saline, an innocuous stimulus. Circulatory levels of physiological stress indicators were determined in all fish at 120 minutes post-treatment. All treatments evoked temporarily increased OBR that returned to pre-treatment levels at 60 minutes (saline, 0.005% capsaicin, hook), 90 minutes (0.1% acetic acid, 0.1% capsaicin), or 120 minutes (2% acetic acid), but with no significant differences from the control group at any time point. Fish treated with 0.1% and 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin displayed increased hovering close to the bottom of the aquaria and fish given 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin also displayed a reduced use of shelter. The only effect seen in hooked fish was brief episodes of lateral head shaking which were not seen pre-treatment or in the other groups, possibly reflecting a resiliency to tissue damage in the mouth area related to the tough nature of the Atlantic cod diet. There were no differences between groups in circulatory stress indicators two hours after treatment. This study provides novel data on behavioural indicators that could be used to assess potentially aversive events in Atlantic cod.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus