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Cultivable bacterial microbiota of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): a new reservoir of antimicrobial resistance?

Su H, McKelvey J, Rollins D, Zhang M, Brightsmith DJ, Derr J, Zhang S - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds.Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%).Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%). Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Tissue-specific species diversity of northern bobwhite cultivable bacterial microbiota.Data shown are the percentages of unique bacterial species (total number = 190) found in individual quail. Vast majority of bacterial species were unique to individual tissue samples.
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pone-0099826-g002: Tissue-specific species diversity of northern bobwhite cultivable bacterial microbiota.Data shown are the percentages of unique bacterial species (total number = 190) found in individual quail. Vast majority of bacterial species were unique to individual tissue samples.

Mentions: At the tissue level, samples from the cecum had the highest number of bacterial species (6.25±2.89, N = 36 analyzed) followed by crop (6.4±2.78, N = 43), cloaca (4.0±0.2.67, N = 29) and trachea (1.36±0.74, N = 14). Means from all four tissue types differed significantly (Least Squares Means Student’s t test, p<0.05). Eighty one percent of tracheal bacterial species were unique to individual tissue samples; and only 10% and 5% were found in 2 and 3 tissues, respectively (Fig. 2A). About 53% of crop bacterial species were unique to individual samples and less than 4% of bacterial species were found in 4 or more samples (Figure 2B). Compared to crop microbiota, less diversity was associated with cecal microbiota. About 41% of cecal bacterial species were unique to individual samples and less than 4% of bacterial species were found in seven or more samples (Fig. 2C). The cloacal microbiota also demonstrated extensive diversity among birds with 65% of bacterial species being unique to individual samples and less than 3% of bacterial species being isolated from 4 or more samples (Fig. 2D).


Cultivable bacterial microbiota of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): a new reservoir of antimicrobial resistance?

Su H, McKelvey J, Rollins D, Zhang M, Brightsmith DJ, Derr J, Zhang S - PLoS ONE (2014)

Tissue-specific species diversity of northern bobwhite cultivable bacterial microbiota.Data shown are the percentages of unique bacterial species (total number = 190) found in individual quail. Vast majority of bacterial species were unique to individual tissue samples.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061065&req=5

pone-0099826-g002: Tissue-specific species diversity of northern bobwhite cultivable bacterial microbiota.Data shown are the percentages of unique bacterial species (total number = 190) found in individual quail. Vast majority of bacterial species were unique to individual tissue samples.
Mentions: At the tissue level, samples from the cecum had the highest number of bacterial species (6.25±2.89, N = 36 analyzed) followed by crop (6.4±2.78, N = 43), cloaca (4.0±0.2.67, N = 29) and trachea (1.36±0.74, N = 14). Means from all four tissue types differed significantly (Least Squares Means Student’s t test, p<0.05). Eighty one percent of tracheal bacterial species were unique to individual tissue samples; and only 10% and 5% were found in 2 and 3 tissues, respectively (Fig. 2A). About 53% of crop bacterial species were unique to individual samples and less than 4% of bacterial species were found in 4 or more samples (Figure 2B). Compared to crop microbiota, less diversity was associated with cecal microbiota. About 41% of cecal bacterial species were unique to individual samples and less than 4% of bacterial species were found in seven or more samples (Fig. 2C). The cloacal microbiota also demonstrated extensive diversity among birds with 65% of bacterial species being unique to individual samples and less than 3% of bacterial species being isolated from 4 or more samples (Fig. 2D).

Bottom Line: At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds.Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%).Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%). Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus