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Cultivable bacterial microbiota of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): a new reservoir of antimicrobial resistance?

Su H, McKelvey J, Rollins D, Zhang M, Brightsmith DJ, Derr J, Zhang S - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds.Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%).Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%). Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The number of bacterial species and the species diversity of northern bobwhite cultivable bacterial microbiota.1A. Species data from 28 individual quail for which all four tissue types are presented. Cultures of most quail yielded 16 to 20 bacterial species while the cultures of a moribund quail gave rise to 26 bacterial species. 1B. Data presented are percentage of unique bacterial species (total number = 190) found in individual quail. Vast majority of bacterial species were unique to individual quail.
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pone-0099826-g001: The number of bacterial species and the species diversity of northern bobwhite cultivable bacterial microbiota.1A. Species data from 28 individual quail for which all four tissue types are presented. Cultures of most quail yielded 16 to 20 bacterial species while the cultures of a moribund quail gave rise to 26 bacterial species. 1B. Data presented are percentage of unique bacterial species (total number = 190) found in individual quail. Vast majority of bacterial species were unique to individual quail.

Mentions: Data for 28 quail for which all four tissue types were available for culture were analyzed and presented in Fig. 1A. The number of bacterial taxa found per tissue analyzed did not differ significantly by sex, age or the interaction between sex and age, but did differ significantly by the type of tissue analyzed (GLMPoisson distribution: Overall ChiSquare = 126, DF = 6, P<0.0001, P values for sex, age and sex*age >0.1, P value for tissue type <0.0001). Cultures of most quail yielded 16 to 20 bacterial species per bird. The cultures of a moribund juvenile bird yielded 26 bacterial species (Fig. 1A). Extensive variation in the composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds (Fig. 1B). Approximately 48% of bacterial species were unique to individual birds; 17%, 8%, 5%, and 4% of bacterial species were found in 2, 3, 4, and 5 birds, respectively (Fig. 1B). In general, less than 3% of bacterial species could be found in more than 7 quail.


Cultivable bacterial microbiota of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): a new reservoir of antimicrobial resistance?

Su H, McKelvey J, Rollins D, Zhang M, Brightsmith DJ, Derr J, Zhang S - PLoS ONE (2014)

The number of bacterial species and the species diversity of northern bobwhite cultivable bacterial microbiota.1A. Species data from 28 individual quail for which all four tissue types are presented. Cultures of most quail yielded 16 to 20 bacterial species while the cultures of a moribund quail gave rise to 26 bacterial species. 1B. Data presented are percentage of unique bacterial species (total number = 190) found in individual quail. Vast majority of bacterial species were unique to individual quail.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061065&req=5

pone-0099826-g001: The number of bacterial species and the species diversity of northern bobwhite cultivable bacterial microbiota.1A. Species data from 28 individual quail for which all four tissue types are presented. Cultures of most quail yielded 16 to 20 bacterial species while the cultures of a moribund quail gave rise to 26 bacterial species. 1B. Data presented are percentage of unique bacterial species (total number = 190) found in individual quail. Vast majority of bacterial species were unique to individual quail.
Mentions: Data for 28 quail for which all four tissue types were available for culture were analyzed and presented in Fig. 1A. The number of bacterial taxa found per tissue analyzed did not differ significantly by sex, age or the interaction between sex and age, but did differ significantly by the type of tissue analyzed (GLMPoisson distribution: Overall ChiSquare = 126, DF = 6, P<0.0001, P values for sex, age and sex*age >0.1, P value for tissue type <0.0001). Cultures of most quail yielded 16 to 20 bacterial species per bird. The cultures of a moribund juvenile bird yielded 26 bacterial species (Fig. 1A). Extensive variation in the composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds (Fig. 1B). Approximately 48% of bacterial species were unique to individual birds; 17%, 8%, 5%, and 4% of bacterial species were found in 2, 3, 4, and 5 birds, respectively (Fig. 1B). In general, less than 3% of bacterial species could be found in more than 7 quail.

Bottom Line: At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds.Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%).Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%). Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus