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Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

Dwivedi P, Khanna M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle.A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively.The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

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Abatement cost of GHG emissions with respect to corresponding fossil fuel-based energy products.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.
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pone-0100030-g009: Abatement cost of GHG emissions with respect to corresponding fossil fuel-based energy products.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.

Mentions: For generated electricity and produced ethanol, the abatement cost of GHG emissions did not vary much across feedstocks (Figure 9). Based on lowest abatement cost, a minimum carbon tax of $ 7.7 Mg CO2e−1 or $ 73 Mg CO2e−1 would be required to promote production of electricity from wood chips with respect to electricity generated using coal and natural gas, respectively (Table 2). A minimum carbon tax of $ 42.5 Mg CO2e−1 or $ 165 Mg CO2e−1 would be required to promote production of electricity from wood pellets with respect to electricity generated using coal and natural gas, respectively. Similarly, a minimum carbon tax of $ 31 Mg CO2e−1 or $ 108 Mg CO2e−1 would be required to promote wood-based ethanol depending upon whether or not income and GHG credits from co-generated electricity at the time of ethanol production were considered. The abatement cost was higher under non-intensive than intensive forest management before harvest age of 24 years but for harvest ages 24 years and greater, the abatement cost was higher under intensive than non-intensive forest management. For generated electricity, the abatement cost was at least $ 34.8 Mg CO2e−1 and $ 92.3 Mg CO2e−1 less when wood chips were used as a fuel than wood pellets with respect to electricity generated using coal and natural gas, respectively. Relative abatement cost was at least $ 70 Mg CO2e−1 less for ethanol produced in presence of income and GHG credits due to co-generated electricity than in absence of them.


Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

Dwivedi P, Khanna M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Abatement cost of GHG emissions with respect to corresponding fossil fuel-based energy products.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061057&req=5

pone-0100030-g009: Abatement cost of GHG emissions with respect to corresponding fossil fuel-based energy products.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.
Mentions: For generated electricity and produced ethanol, the abatement cost of GHG emissions did not vary much across feedstocks (Figure 9). Based on lowest abatement cost, a minimum carbon tax of $ 7.7 Mg CO2e−1 or $ 73 Mg CO2e−1 would be required to promote production of electricity from wood chips with respect to electricity generated using coal and natural gas, respectively (Table 2). A minimum carbon tax of $ 42.5 Mg CO2e−1 or $ 165 Mg CO2e−1 would be required to promote production of electricity from wood pellets with respect to electricity generated using coal and natural gas, respectively. Similarly, a minimum carbon tax of $ 31 Mg CO2e−1 or $ 108 Mg CO2e−1 would be required to promote wood-based ethanol depending upon whether or not income and GHG credits from co-generated electricity at the time of ethanol production were considered. The abatement cost was higher under non-intensive than intensive forest management before harvest age of 24 years but for harvest ages 24 years and greater, the abatement cost was higher under intensive than non-intensive forest management. For generated electricity, the abatement cost was at least $ 34.8 Mg CO2e−1 and $ 92.3 Mg CO2e−1 less when wood chips were used as a fuel than wood pellets with respect to electricity generated using coal and natural gas, respectively. Relative abatement cost was at least $ 70 Mg CO2e−1 less for ethanol produced in presence of income and GHG credits due to co-generated electricity than in absence of them.

Bottom Line: The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle.A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively.The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus