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Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

Dwivedi P, Khanna M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle.A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively.The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

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GHG intensity of energy products at the consumption level.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.
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pone-0100030-g007: GHG intensity of energy products at the consumption level.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.

Mentions: The GHG intensity of electricity generated from wood pellets was highest whereas the GHG intensity of ethanol produced in presence of GHG credits due to supply of co-generated electricity to the grid was lowest at the production level (Figure 6). The GHG intensities of electricity generated from wood chips and ethanol produced in absence of any GHG credits were comparable at the production level (Table 1). At the consumption level, the GHG intensity of ethanol produced in the absence of any GHG credits was highest followed by electricity generated using wood pellets, electricity generated from wood chips, and ethanol produced in the presence of GHG credits (Figure 7). Percentage savings in GHG emissions relative to the electricity generated from coal and natural gas on per km traveled across feedstocks remained almost same (Figure 8). This was also the case for the produced ethanol. For generated electricity, relative percentage savings were higher (about 8% and 15% relative to coal and natural gas, respectively) when wood chips were used as a feedstock than wood pellets. Similarly, relative percentage savings were higher (about 15%) when GHG credits from co-generated electricity were considered. Across forest management choices, percentage savings in GHG emissions for non-intensive than intensive forest management were higher by about 2% only.


Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

Dwivedi P, Khanna M - PLoS ONE (2014)

GHG intensity of energy products at the consumption level.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061057&req=5

pone-0100030-g007: GHG intensity of energy products at the consumption level.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.
Mentions: The GHG intensity of electricity generated from wood pellets was highest whereas the GHG intensity of ethanol produced in presence of GHG credits due to supply of co-generated electricity to the grid was lowest at the production level (Figure 6). The GHG intensities of electricity generated from wood chips and ethanol produced in absence of any GHG credits were comparable at the production level (Table 1). At the consumption level, the GHG intensity of ethanol produced in the absence of any GHG credits was highest followed by electricity generated using wood pellets, electricity generated from wood chips, and ethanol produced in the presence of GHG credits (Figure 7). Percentage savings in GHG emissions relative to the electricity generated from coal and natural gas on per km traveled across feedstocks remained almost same (Figure 8). This was also the case for the produced ethanol. For generated electricity, relative percentage savings were higher (about 8% and 15% relative to coal and natural gas, respectively) when wood chips were used as a feedstock than wood pellets. Similarly, relative percentage savings were higher (about 15%) when GHG credits from co-generated electricity were considered. Across forest management choices, percentage savings in GHG emissions for non-intensive than intensive forest management were higher by about 2% only.

Bottom Line: The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle.A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively.The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus