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Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

Dwivedi P, Khanna M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle.A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively.The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

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Cost of energy products at the consumption level.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.
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pone-0100030-g005: Cost of energy products at the consumption level.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.

Mentions: The cost of electricity generated from wood pellets was consistently higher (about 1.0 to 2.5 ¢ MJ−1) than the cost of electricity generated using wood chips across same feedstocks mostly due to higher production and transportation costs of wood pellets (Figure 4). The cost of ethanol produced without any income from co-generated electricity was higher by 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than the cost of ethanol produced with income from co-generated electricity across same feedstocks. Across energy pathways, the cost of per MJ of energy obtained in the form of ethanol without any income from co-generated electricity was highest followed by electricity from wood pellets, ethanol with income from co-generated electricity, and electricity from wood chips. Unit production costs were comparable across feedstocks and choice of forest management especially after 12th year of plantation. At the consumption level, the cost of a km traveled using electricity produced with wood pellets was higher than that of a km traveled with electricity generated from wood chips (0.7 to 1.8 ¢ km−1) across feedstocks (Figure 5). The cost of a km with ethanol produced in the presence of income from co-generated electricity was lower than the cost of a km with ethanol produced in the absence of income from co-generated electricity by 1.7 ¢ km−1. A comparison across energy pathways revealed that a km of travel was much cheaper for an electric vehicle than a flex-fuel vehicle ranging from 5.6 ¢ km−1 and 17.4 ¢ km−1 depending upon whether wood pellets or wood chips were used for electricity generation (Table 1). This was mostly due to high fuel economy of electric vehicles than flex fuel vehicles.


Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

Dwivedi P, Khanna M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Cost of energy products at the consumption level.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061057&req=5

pone-0100030-g005: Cost of energy products at the consumption level.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; WP: wood pellets; WC: wood chips; w: with income from cogenerated electricity; wo: without income from cogenerated electricity.
Mentions: The cost of electricity generated from wood pellets was consistently higher (about 1.0 to 2.5 ¢ MJ−1) than the cost of electricity generated using wood chips across same feedstocks mostly due to higher production and transportation costs of wood pellets (Figure 4). The cost of ethanol produced without any income from co-generated electricity was higher by 0.7 ¢ MJ−1 than the cost of ethanol produced with income from co-generated electricity across same feedstocks. Across energy pathways, the cost of per MJ of energy obtained in the form of ethanol without any income from co-generated electricity was highest followed by electricity from wood pellets, ethanol with income from co-generated electricity, and electricity from wood chips. Unit production costs were comparable across feedstocks and choice of forest management especially after 12th year of plantation. At the consumption level, the cost of a km traveled using electricity produced with wood pellets was higher than that of a km traveled with electricity generated from wood chips (0.7 to 1.8 ¢ km−1) across feedstocks (Figure 5). The cost of a km with ethanol produced in the presence of income from co-generated electricity was lower than the cost of a km with ethanol produced in the absence of income from co-generated electricity by 1.7 ¢ km−1. A comparison across energy pathways revealed that a km of travel was much cheaper for an electric vehicle than a flex-fuel vehicle ranging from 5.6 ¢ km−1 and 17.4 ¢ km−1 depending upon whether wood pellets or wood chips were used for electricity generation (Table 1). This was mostly due to high fuel economy of electric vehicles than flex fuel vehicles.

Bottom Line: The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle.A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively.The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus