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Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

Dwivedi P, Khanna M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle.A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively.The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

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Availability of feedstocks, electricity generated, and ethanol produced.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; INT: intensive forest management; NoINT: non-intensive forest management.
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pone-0100030-g003: Availability of feedstocks, electricity generated, and ethanol produced.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; INT: intensive forest management; NoINT: non-intensive forest management.

Mentions: Under intensive and non-intensive forest management choices, LEVs were highest at 21st and 26th year of plantation, respectively (Figure 2). Thus, optimal rotation ages for intensive and non-intensive forest management choices were 21 and 26 years, respectively. Additional income from logging residues increased the LEV by 15 and 28 percentage points for intensive and non-intensive forest management choices at optimal rotation ages, respectively. As expected, opportunity cost increased with an increase or a decrease in the harvest age from the optimal rotation age. Quantities of total electricity generated and ethanol produced were proportional to the feedstock availability (Figure 3).


Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

Dwivedi P, Khanna M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Availability of feedstocks, electricity generated, and ethanol produced.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; INT: intensive forest management; NoINT: non-intensive forest management.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061057&req=5

pone-0100030-g003: Availability of feedstocks, electricity generated, and ethanol produced.LR: logging residues; PW: pulpwood; INT: intensive forest management; NoINT: non-intensive forest management.
Mentions: Under intensive and non-intensive forest management choices, LEVs were highest at 21st and 26th year of plantation, respectively (Figure 2). Thus, optimal rotation ages for intensive and non-intensive forest management choices were 21 and 26 years, respectively. Additional income from logging residues increased the LEV by 15 and 28 percentage points for intensive and non-intensive forest management choices at optimal rotation ages, respectively. As expected, opportunity cost increased with an increase or a decrease in the harvest age from the optimal rotation age. Quantities of total electricity generated and ethanol produced were proportional to the feedstock availability (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle.A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively.The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus