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Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

Dwivedi P, Khanna M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle.A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively.The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Availability of timber products at different plantation ages.Site index is 21.4 meters at 25th year of plantation. Initial plantation density is 1236 seedlings ha−1.
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pone-0100030-g001: Availability of timber products at different plantation ages.Site index is 21.4 meters at 25th year of plantation. Initial plantation density is 1236 seedlings ha−1.

Mentions: The availability of large-diameter timber products (sawtimber and chip-n-saw) was smaller at initial harvest ages relative to small-diameter timber products (pulpwood and logging residues). However, availability of large-diameter timber products increased as trees gained girth and height with time (Figure 1). The availability of logging residues was maximum at harvest ages 33 (84.2 Mg ha−1) and 39 (72.4 Mg ha−1) years for intensive and non-intensive forest management, respectively. The availability of pulpwood was highest at harvest ages 13 (121.4 Mg ha−1) and 18 (124.8 Mg ha−1) years for intensive and non-intensive forest management, respectively. The combined availability of pulpwood and logging residues reached to a maximum value of 179.6 and 172.8 Mg ha−1 at plantation ages 21 and 22 years under intensive and non-intensive forest management scenarios, respectively. Total availability of logging residues was always higher under intensive than non-intensive forest management at all harvest ages. Same case was observed with the combined availability of logging residues and pulpwood. However, total availability of pulpwood was only higher under intensive than non-intensive forest management when harvest age was lower than 16 years.


Abatement cost of GHG emissions for wood-based electricity and ethanol at production and consumption levels.

Dwivedi P, Khanna M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Availability of timber products at different plantation ages.Site index is 21.4 meters at 25th year of plantation. Initial plantation density is 1236 seedlings ha−1.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061057&req=5

pone-0100030-g001: Availability of timber products at different plantation ages.Site index is 21.4 meters at 25th year of plantation. Initial plantation density is 1236 seedlings ha−1.
Mentions: The availability of large-diameter timber products (sawtimber and chip-n-saw) was smaller at initial harvest ages relative to small-diameter timber products (pulpwood and logging residues). However, availability of large-diameter timber products increased as trees gained girth and height with time (Figure 1). The availability of logging residues was maximum at harvest ages 33 (84.2 Mg ha−1) and 39 (72.4 Mg ha−1) years for intensive and non-intensive forest management, respectively. The availability of pulpwood was highest at harvest ages 13 (121.4 Mg ha−1) and 18 (124.8 Mg ha−1) years for intensive and non-intensive forest management, respectively. The combined availability of pulpwood and logging residues reached to a maximum value of 179.6 and 172.8 Mg ha−1 at plantation ages 21 and 22 years under intensive and non-intensive forest management scenarios, respectively. Total availability of logging residues was always higher under intensive than non-intensive forest management at all harvest ages. Same case was observed with the combined availability of logging residues and pulpwood. However, total availability of pulpwood was only higher under intensive than non-intensive forest management when harvest age was lower than 16 years.

Bottom Line: The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle.A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively.The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ-1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ-1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km-1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e-1 and $30 Mg CO2e-1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus