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Lifespan psychomotor behaviour profiles of multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye effects in rats.

Erickson ZT, Falkenberg EA, Metz GA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment.There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study.The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

ABSTRACT
The consumption of artificial food dye (AFD) during childhood and adolescence has been linked to behavioural changes, such as hyperactivity. It is possible that the vulnerability to AFDs is modified by prenatal stress. Common consequences of prenatal stress include hyperactivity, thus potentially leading to synergistic actions with AFDs. Here, we investigated the compounding effect of multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) and AFD consumption on the development of hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours across the lifespan in male rats. MPS treatment involved a family history of four consecutive generations of prenatal stress (F4 generation). AFD treatment included a 4%-concentration of FD&C Red 40, FD&C Yellow 5, FD&C Yellow 6, and FD&C Blue 1 in the drinking water from postnatal days 22 to 50 to resemble juvenile and adolescent dietary exposure. Using several exploration tasks, animals were tested in motor activity and anxiety-like behaviours from adolescence to 13 months of age. MPS resulted in hyperactivity both early (50 days) and later in life (13 months), with normalized activity patterns at reproductive age. AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment. Notably, both MPS and AFD promoted risk-taking behaviour in young adults (3 months). There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study. The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure. MPS, however, results in a characteristic lifespan profile of behavioural changes, indicating that development and aging represent particularly vulnerable periods in life during which a family history of prenatal stress may precipitate.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Behavioural effects of multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye consumption in the affective exploration task.(A) At both 1.5 and 13 months of age, there were no effects of treatment with regard to the latency to emerge from the refuge. However, at 3 months of age, AFD-only animals (n = 8) were less reluctant to exit the refuge than any other group (n = 8 per group). (B) At 3 months of age, the AFD-only group (n = 8) was the fastest to exit the safe refuge. (C) Percentage of animals in each group that left the safe refuge at the age of 3 months. Both the prenatally stressed and AFD-treated groups left the refuge in 100% (n = 8) of the test sessions, while both control and combined prenatal stress and AFD groups left the safe refuge only in 62% of the time (n = 5 out of n = 8). Asterisks indicate significances: * p<0.05; ** p<0.01, compared to controls.
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pone-0092132-g004: Behavioural effects of multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye consumption in the affective exploration task.(A) At both 1.5 and 13 months of age, there were no effects of treatment with regard to the latency to emerge from the refuge. However, at 3 months of age, AFD-only animals (n = 8) were less reluctant to exit the refuge than any other group (n = 8 per group). (B) At 3 months of age, the AFD-only group (n = 8) was the fastest to exit the safe refuge. (C) Percentage of animals in each group that left the safe refuge at the age of 3 months. Both the prenatally stressed and AFD-treated groups left the refuge in 100% (n = 8) of the test sessions, while both control and combined prenatal stress and AFD groups left the safe refuge only in 62% of the time (n = 5 out of n = 8). Asterisks indicate significances: * p<0.05; ** p<0.01, compared to controls.

Mentions: When considering Emergence Latency, the ANOVA across the three testing periods showed a significant interaction effect for Stress*Dye (F(1,92) = 5.25, p<0.05; see Figure 4). However, significant main effects, including a main effect of Age, were not found for Emergence Latency when analysing all three testing periods cumulatively. When conducting ANOVA at individual time points, only the 3-month period showed a trend (p = 0.054) for the same Stress*Dye interaction. It is interesting that a significant effect of Dye was found only at the 3-month time point, i.e., 40 days after the cessation of Dye consumption. At 3 months of age, Dye-only animals emerged much faster from the refuge than untreated controls (t(14) = 2.24, p<0.05; Figures 4A and 4B). The analysis of both Refuge Time and Number of Refuge Exits showed no significant effects.


Lifespan psychomotor behaviour profiles of multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye effects in rats.

Erickson ZT, Falkenberg EA, Metz GA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Behavioural effects of multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye consumption in the affective exploration task.(A) At both 1.5 and 13 months of age, there were no effects of treatment with regard to the latency to emerge from the refuge. However, at 3 months of age, AFD-only animals (n = 8) were less reluctant to exit the refuge than any other group (n = 8 per group). (B) At 3 months of age, the AFD-only group (n = 8) was the fastest to exit the safe refuge. (C) Percentage of animals in each group that left the safe refuge at the age of 3 months. Both the prenatally stressed and AFD-treated groups left the refuge in 100% (n = 8) of the test sessions, while both control and combined prenatal stress and AFD groups left the safe refuge only in 62% of the time (n = 5 out of n = 8). Asterisks indicate significances: * p<0.05; ** p<0.01, compared to controls.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061018&req=5

pone-0092132-g004: Behavioural effects of multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye consumption in the affective exploration task.(A) At both 1.5 and 13 months of age, there were no effects of treatment with regard to the latency to emerge from the refuge. However, at 3 months of age, AFD-only animals (n = 8) were less reluctant to exit the refuge than any other group (n = 8 per group). (B) At 3 months of age, the AFD-only group (n = 8) was the fastest to exit the safe refuge. (C) Percentage of animals in each group that left the safe refuge at the age of 3 months. Both the prenatally stressed and AFD-treated groups left the refuge in 100% (n = 8) of the test sessions, while both control and combined prenatal stress and AFD groups left the safe refuge only in 62% of the time (n = 5 out of n = 8). Asterisks indicate significances: * p<0.05; ** p<0.01, compared to controls.
Mentions: When considering Emergence Latency, the ANOVA across the three testing periods showed a significant interaction effect for Stress*Dye (F(1,92) = 5.25, p<0.05; see Figure 4). However, significant main effects, including a main effect of Age, were not found for Emergence Latency when analysing all three testing periods cumulatively. When conducting ANOVA at individual time points, only the 3-month period showed a trend (p = 0.054) for the same Stress*Dye interaction. It is interesting that a significant effect of Dye was found only at the 3-month time point, i.e., 40 days after the cessation of Dye consumption. At 3 months of age, Dye-only animals emerged much faster from the refuge than untreated controls (t(14) = 2.24, p<0.05; Figures 4A and 4B). The analysis of both Refuge Time and Number of Refuge Exits showed no significant effects.

Bottom Line: AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment.There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study.The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

ABSTRACT
The consumption of artificial food dye (AFD) during childhood and adolescence has been linked to behavioural changes, such as hyperactivity. It is possible that the vulnerability to AFDs is modified by prenatal stress. Common consequences of prenatal stress include hyperactivity, thus potentially leading to synergistic actions with AFDs. Here, we investigated the compounding effect of multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) and AFD consumption on the development of hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours across the lifespan in male rats. MPS treatment involved a family history of four consecutive generations of prenatal stress (F4 generation). AFD treatment included a 4%-concentration of FD&C Red 40, FD&C Yellow 5, FD&C Yellow 6, and FD&C Blue 1 in the drinking water from postnatal days 22 to 50 to resemble juvenile and adolescent dietary exposure. Using several exploration tasks, animals were tested in motor activity and anxiety-like behaviours from adolescence to 13 months of age. MPS resulted in hyperactivity both early (50 days) and later in life (13 months), with normalized activity patterns at reproductive age. AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment. Notably, both MPS and AFD promoted risk-taking behaviour in young adults (3 months). There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study. The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure. MPS, however, results in a characteristic lifespan profile of behavioural changes, indicating that development and aging represent particularly vulnerable periods in life during which a family history of prenatal stress may precipitate.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus