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Lifespan psychomotor behaviour profiles of multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye effects in rats.

Erickson ZT, Falkenberg EA, Metz GA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment.There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study.The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

ABSTRACT
The consumption of artificial food dye (AFD) during childhood and adolescence has been linked to behavioural changes, such as hyperactivity. It is possible that the vulnerability to AFDs is modified by prenatal stress. Common consequences of prenatal stress include hyperactivity, thus potentially leading to synergistic actions with AFDs. Here, we investigated the compounding effect of multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) and AFD consumption on the development of hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours across the lifespan in male rats. MPS treatment involved a family history of four consecutive generations of prenatal stress (F4 generation). AFD treatment included a 4%-concentration of FD&C Red 40, FD&C Yellow 5, FD&C Yellow 6, and FD&C Blue 1 in the drinking water from postnatal days 22 to 50 to resemble juvenile and adolescent dietary exposure. Using several exploration tasks, animals were tested in motor activity and anxiety-like behaviours from adolescence to 13 months of age. MPS resulted in hyperactivity both early (50 days) and later in life (13 months), with normalized activity patterns at reproductive age. AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment. Notably, both MPS and AFD promoted risk-taking behaviour in young adults (3 months). There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study. The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure. MPS, however, results in a characteristic lifespan profile of behavioural changes, indicating that development and aging represent particularly vulnerable periods in life during which a family history of prenatal stress may precipitate.

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Experimental design.The present study used male rats in a two-by-two factorial design. The independent variables were multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye (AFD) consumption. The multigenerational prenatally stressed rats were the fourth generation (F4) of a familial line in which dams in each generation were given stress during pregnancy. Both the stressed and non-stressed animals were given either normal tap water or a 4%-AFD solution for regular consumption.
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pone-0092132-g001: Experimental design.The present study used male rats in a two-by-two factorial design. The independent variables were multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye (AFD) consumption. The multigenerational prenatally stressed rats were the fourth generation (F4) of a familial line in which dams in each generation were given stress during pregnancy. Both the stressed and non-stressed animals were given either normal tap water or a 4%-AFD solution for regular consumption.

Mentions: The present study was conducted with a two-by-two factorial design, with multigenerational prenatal stress (“Stress”) and adolescent consumption of artificial food dye (“Dye”) as the two treatments (see Figure 1). The male F4 generation born to four generations of stressed dams was used in this study. The experimental design resulted in four groups of rats (n = 8 per group): (1) non-treated controls; (2) Stress without Dye consumption; (3) Dye consumption without Stress; (4) Stress combined with Dye consumption. Each group included offspring from four different litters (n = 2/litter/group). Dye solution was provided from postnatal day (P) 22 (infancy) to P 50 (adolescence). At P 50, all animals given the dye treatment were switched to standard tap water. The animals were allowed to drink ad libitum, and fluid consumption and body mass were monitored daily.


Lifespan psychomotor behaviour profiles of multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye effects in rats.

Erickson ZT, Falkenberg EA, Metz GA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Experimental design.The present study used male rats in a two-by-two factorial design. The independent variables were multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye (AFD) consumption. The multigenerational prenatally stressed rats were the fourth generation (F4) of a familial line in which dams in each generation were given stress during pregnancy. Both the stressed and non-stressed animals were given either normal tap water or a 4%-AFD solution for regular consumption.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061018&req=5

pone-0092132-g001: Experimental design.The present study used male rats in a two-by-two factorial design. The independent variables were multigenerational prenatal stress and artificial food dye (AFD) consumption. The multigenerational prenatally stressed rats were the fourth generation (F4) of a familial line in which dams in each generation were given stress during pregnancy. Both the stressed and non-stressed animals were given either normal tap water or a 4%-AFD solution for regular consumption.
Mentions: The present study was conducted with a two-by-two factorial design, with multigenerational prenatal stress (“Stress”) and adolescent consumption of artificial food dye (“Dye”) as the two treatments (see Figure 1). The male F4 generation born to four generations of stressed dams was used in this study. The experimental design resulted in four groups of rats (n = 8 per group): (1) non-treated controls; (2) Stress without Dye consumption; (3) Dye consumption without Stress; (4) Stress combined with Dye consumption. Each group included offspring from four different litters (n = 2/litter/group). Dye solution was provided from postnatal day (P) 22 (infancy) to P 50 (adolescence). At P 50, all animals given the dye treatment were switched to standard tap water. The animals were allowed to drink ad libitum, and fluid consumption and body mass were monitored daily.

Bottom Line: AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment.There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study.The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

ABSTRACT
The consumption of artificial food dye (AFD) during childhood and adolescence has been linked to behavioural changes, such as hyperactivity. It is possible that the vulnerability to AFDs is modified by prenatal stress. Common consequences of prenatal stress include hyperactivity, thus potentially leading to synergistic actions with AFDs. Here, we investigated the compounding effect of multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) and AFD consumption on the development of hyperactivity and anxiety-related behaviours across the lifespan in male rats. MPS treatment involved a family history of four consecutive generations of prenatal stress (F4 generation). AFD treatment included a 4%-concentration of FD&C Red 40, FD&C Yellow 5, FD&C Yellow 6, and FD&C Blue 1 in the drinking water from postnatal days 22 to 50 to resemble juvenile and adolescent dietary exposure. Using several exploration tasks, animals were tested in motor activity and anxiety-like behaviours from adolescence to 13 months of age. MPS resulted in hyperactivity both early (50 days) and later in life (13 months), with normalized activity patterns at reproductive age. AFD consumption resulted in hyperactivity during consumption, which subsided following termination of treatment. Notably, both MPS and AFD promoted risk-taking behaviour in young adults (3 months). There were few synergistic effects between MPS and AFD in this study. The findings suggest that AFDs exert the most noticeable effects at the time of exposure. MPS, however, results in a characteristic lifespan profile of behavioural changes, indicating that development and aging represent particularly vulnerable periods in life during which a family history of prenatal stress may precipitate.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus