Limits...
The billion cell construct: will three-dimensional printing get us there?

Miller JS - PLoS Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: How structure relates to function--across spatial scales, from the single molecule to the whole organism--is a central theme in biology.That is, we struggle to approximate the architecture of living tissues experimentally, hoping that the structure we create will lead to the function we desire.A new means to explore the relationship between form and function in living tissue has arrived with three-dimensional printing, but the technology is not without limitations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
How structure relates to function--across spatial scales, from the single molecule to the whole organism--is a central theme in biology. Bioengineers, however, wrestle with the converse question: will function follow form? That is, we struggle to approximate the architecture of living tissues experimentally, hoping that the structure we create will lead to the function we desire. A new means to explore the relationship between form and function in living tissue has arrived with three-dimensional printing, but the technology is not without limitations.

Show MeSH
Recapitulating whole organ vasculature.It should be possible to create whole vascularized organoids by merging current anatomical mapping technologies with 3D printing. (A) A tissue or organ of interest is scanned via microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Source 2D liver scans courtesy of Chris Chen and Sangeeta Bhatia, additional research available via [10]. The resulting voxels (volumetric pixels) can be visualized and converted into a 3D surface topology. (B) Optionally, the 3D surface mesh can be fully parametrized in order to generate, de novo, similar vascular architectures as a new topology. (C) Native or synthetically generated vascular architectures are then computationally sliced and prepared for 3D printing directly (in sacrificial ink) or by boolean volumetric subtraction (in additive ink). After physical cleanup, 3D printing can yield cell-laden hydrogels containing living cells and perfusable vasculature. Shown here for clarity is an architecture with one inlet and zero outlets, but more complete or complex architectures with multiple inlets and outlets could be achieved with this same workflow.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061004&req=5

pbio-1001882-g005: Recapitulating whole organ vasculature.It should be possible to create whole vascularized organoids by merging current anatomical mapping technologies with 3D printing. (A) A tissue or organ of interest is scanned via microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Source 2D liver scans courtesy of Chris Chen and Sangeeta Bhatia, additional research available via [10]. The resulting voxels (volumetric pixels) can be visualized and converted into a 3D surface topology. (B) Optionally, the 3D surface mesh can be fully parametrized in order to generate, de novo, similar vascular architectures as a new topology. (C) Native or synthetically generated vascular architectures are then computationally sliced and prepared for 3D printing directly (in sacrificial ink) or by boolean volumetric subtraction (in additive ink). After physical cleanup, 3D printing can yield cell-laden hydrogels containing living cells and perfusable vasculature. Shown here for clarity is an architecture with one inlet and zero outlets, but more complete or complex architectures with multiple inlets and outlets could be achieved with this same workflow.

Mentions: Basic anatomy demonstrates that identical organs from different people have unique vascular architectures, yet these organs can still function similarly for each person. While major arteries and veins are genetically encoded and form during embryogenesis [54]–[56], the microvasculature is remodeled based on local forces and needs [57]. Indeed, the vessel architecture of the retina is more distinct among people than their fingerprints. Thus, it is not necessarily the exact x, y, and z coordinates of individual vessels that permit organ function. Rather, the overall transport of blood components that results from vessel architecture is a principal factor defining healthy and diseased tissue (e.g., vessel tortuosity, red blood cell velocity, pO2, and pH). So, to solve transport questions in engineered tissues, it is likely that more than one architectural solution is possible (Figure 5).


The billion cell construct: will three-dimensional printing get us there?

Miller JS - PLoS Biol. (2014)

Recapitulating whole organ vasculature.It should be possible to create whole vascularized organoids by merging current anatomical mapping technologies with 3D printing. (A) A tissue or organ of interest is scanned via microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Source 2D liver scans courtesy of Chris Chen and Sangeeta Bhatia, additional research available via [10]. The resulting voxels (volumetric pixels) can be visualized and converted into a 3D surface topology. (B) Optionally, the 3D surface mesh can be fully parametrized in order to generate, de novo, similar vascular architectures as a new topology. (C) Native or synthetically generated vascular architectures are then computationally sliced and prepared for 3D printing directly (in sacrificial ink) or by boolean volumetric subtraction (in additive ink). After physical cleanup, 3D printing can yield cell-laden hydrogels containing living cells and perfusable vasculature. Shown here for clarity is an architecture with one inlet and zero outlets, but more complete or complex architectures with multiple inlets and outlets could be achieved with this same workflow.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061004&req=5

pbio-1001882-g005: Recapitulating whole organ vasculature.It should be possible to create whole vascularized organoids by merging current anatomical mapping technologies with 3D printing. (A) A tissue or organ of interest is scanned via microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Source 2D liver scans courtesy of Chris Chen and Sangeeta Bhatia, additional research available via [10]. The resulting voxels (volumetric pixels) can be visualized and converted into a 3D surface topology. (B) Optionally, the 3D surface mesh can be fully parametrized in order to generate, de novo, similar vascular architectures as a new topology. (C) Native or synthetically generated vascular architectures are then computationally sliced and prepared for 3D printing directly (in sacrificial ink) or by boolean volumetric subtraction (in additive ink). After physical cleanup, 3D printing can yield cell-laden hydrogels containing living cells and perfusable vasculature. Shown here for clarity is an architecture with one inlet and zero outlets, but more complete or complex architectures with multiple inlets and outlets could be achieved with this same workflow.
Mentions: Basic anatomy demonstrates that identical organs from different people have unique vascular architectures, yet these organs can still function similarly for each person. While major arteries and veins are genetically encoded and form during embryogenesis [54]–[56], the microvasculature is remodeled based on local forces and needs [57]. Indeed, the vessel architecture of the retina is more distinct among people than their fingerprints. Thus, it is not necessarily the exact x, y, and z coordinates of individual vessels that permit organ function. Rather, the overall transport of blood components that results from vessel architecture is a principal factor defining healthy and diseased tissue (e.g., vessel tortuosity, red blood cell velocity, pO2, and pH). So, to solve transport questions in engineered tissues, it is likely that more than one architectural solution is possible (Figure 5).

Bottom Line: How structure relates to function--across spatial scales, from the single molecule to the whole organism--is a central theme in biology.That is, we struggle to approximate the architecture of living tissues experimentally, hoping that the structure we create will lead to the function we desire.A new means to explore the relationship between form and function in living tissue has arrived with three-dimensional printing, but the technology is not without limitations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
How structure relates to function--across spatial scales, from the single molecule to the whole organism--is a central theme in biology. Bioengineers, however, wrestle with the converse question: will function follow form? That is, we struggle to approximate the architecture of living tissues experimentally, hoping that the structure we create will lead to the function we desire. A new means to explore the relationship between form and function in living tissue has arrived with three-dimensional printing, but the technology is not without limitations.

Show MeSH