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Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

Kumar J, Dhar P, Tayade AB, Gupta D, Chaurasia OP, Upreti DK, Arora R, Srivastava RB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action.The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol.Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used as natural antioxidants for stress related problems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Defence Research & Development Organisation, Leh-Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

ABSTRACT
Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used as natural antioxidants for stress related problems. Our studies go on to prove that the unique trans-Himalayan lichens are a hitherto untapped bioresource with immense potential for discovery of new chemical entities, and this biodiversity needs to be tapped sustainably.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cytotoxic effect of lichen extracts on HepG2 cells.LW1: water extract of D. vellereum, LW2: water extract of U. vellea, LW8: water extract of X. elegans, LW12: water extract of M. disjuncta, LM5: methanol extract of M. disjuncta, L10M: methanol extract of L. alphoplaca, L12M: methanol extract of M. disjuncta, L13M: methanol extract of X. stenophylla.
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pone-0098696-g003: Cytotoxic effect of lichen extracts on HepG2 cells.LW1: water extract of D. vellereum, LW2: water extract of U. vellea, LW8: water extract of X. elegans, LW12: water extract of M. disjuncta, LM5: methanol extract of M. disjuncta, L10M: methanol extract of L. alphoplaca, L12M: methanol extract of M. disjuncta, L13M: methanol extract of X. stenophylla.

Mentions: In HepG2 cells, extract LW2 and LW12 showed no toxicity as they remained far above from GI50. The % growth with treatment of LW2 and LW12 at highest concentration level 333.33 µg/ml was 66.22±3.88 and 59.171±4.33 respectively (Fig. 3). LW1 was found to be less toxic as it approached the GI50 at 333.33 µg/ml (% growth 49.967±3.81) and all concentrations were non-toxic below this level. L10M and L12M crossed the GI50 at 275 µg/ml (% growth 21.28±1.94) and 281 µg/ml (% growth 24.61±1.87) and were found to be toxic. LW1, L10M and L12M were non-toxic upto 222.22 µg/ml. LW8 was very toxic at 333.33 µg/ml where it approached almost near to GI90 and crossed GI50 at 189 µg/ml. L13M and LM5 were extremely toxic for HepG2 cells as they crossed the GI50 at 41 µg/ml and 191 µg/ml, TGI at 69 µg/ml and 266 µg/ml, and LC50 at 190 µg/ml and 324 µg/ml respectively. They showed −66.31±4.52% and −58.19±4.54% growth at 333.33 µg/ml. All these results have been depicted in Fig. 3.


Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

Kumar J, Dhar P, Tayade AB, Gupta D, Chaurasia OP, Upreti DK, Arora R, Srivastava RB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Cytotoxic effect of lichen extracts on HepG2 cells.LW1: water extract of D. vellereum, LW2: water extract of U. vellea, LW8: water extract of X. elegans, LW12: water extract of M. disjuncta, LM5: methanol extract of M. disjuncta, L10M: methanol extract of L. alphoplaca, L12M: methanol extract of M. disjuncta, L13M: methanol extract of X. stenophylla.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061001&req=5

pone-0098696-g003: Cytotoxic effect of lichen extracts on HepG2 cells.LW1: water extract of D. vellereum, LW2: water extract of U. vellea, LW8: water extract of X. elegans, LW12: water extract of M. disjuncta, LM5: methanol extract of M. disjuncta, L10M: methanol extract of L. alphoplaca, L12M: methanol extract of M. disjuncta, L13M: methanol extract of X. stenophylla.
Mentions: In HepG2 cells, extract LW2 and LW12 showed no toxicity as they remained far above from GI50. The % growth with treatment of LW2 and LW12 at highest concentration level 333.33 µg/ml was 66.22±3.88 and 59.171±4.33 respectively (Fig. 3). LW1 was found to be less toxic as it approached the GI50 at 333.33 µg/ml (% growth 49.967±3.81) and all concentrations were non-toxic below this level. L10M and L12M crossed the GI50 at 275 µg/ml (% growth 21.28±1.94) and 281 µg/ml (% growth 24.61±1.87) and were found to be toxic. LW1, L10M and L12M were non-toxic upto 222.22 µg/ml. LW8 was very toxic at 333.33 µg/ml where it approached almost near to GI90 and crossed GI50 at 189 µg/ml. L13M and LM5 were extremely toxic for HepG2 cells as they crossed the GI50 at 41 µg/ml and 191 µg/ml, TGI at 69 µg/ml and 266 µg/ml, and LC50 at 190 µg/ml and 324 µg/ml respectively. They showed −66.31±4.52% and −58.19±4.54% growth at 333.33 µg/ml. All these results have been depicted in Fig. 3.

Bottom Line: The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action.The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol.Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used as natural antioxidants for stress related problems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Defence Research & Development Organisation, Leh-Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

ABSTRACT
Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used as natural antioxidants for stress related problems. Our studies go on to prove that the unique trans-Himalayan lichens are a hitherto untapped bioresource with immense potential for discovery of new chemical entities, and this biodiversity needs to be tapped sustainably.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus