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Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

Kumar J, Dhar P, Tayade AB, Gupta D, Chaurasia OP, Upreti DK, Arora R, Srivastava RB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action.The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol.Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used as natural antioxidants for stress related problems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Defence Research & Development Organisation, Leh-Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

ABSTRACT
Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used as natural antioxidants for stress related problems. Our studies go on to prove that the unique trans-Himalayan lichens are a hitherto untapped bioresource with immense potential for discovery of new chemical entities, and this biodiversity needs to be tapped sustainably.

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Thallus of lichen species studied in the present investigation.a: Dermatocarpon vellereum; b: Umbilicaria vellea; c: Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca; d: Rhizoplaca melanophthalma; e: Pleopsidium flavum; f: Xanthoparmelia mexicana; g: Acarospora badiofusca; h: Xanthoria elegans; i: Lecanora frustulosa; j: Lobothallia alphoplaca; k: Physconia muscigena; l: Melanelia disjuncta; m: Xanthoparmelia stenophylla; n: Peccania coralloides.
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pone-0098696-g001: Thallus of lichen species studied in the present investigation.a: Dermatocarpon vellereum; b: Umbilicaria vellea; c: Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca; d: Rhizoplaca melanophthalma; e: Pleopsidium flavum; f: Xanthoparmelia mexicana; g: Acarospora badiofusca; h: Xanthoria elegans; i: Lecanora frustulosa; j: Lobothallia alphoplaca; k: Physconia muscigena; l: Melanelia disjuncta; m: Xanthoparmelia stenophylla; n: Peccania coralloides.

Mentions: In the present study lichen specimens were collected from Chang-La Top of Changthang valley and northward slope of hill of Indus valley, Ladakh, India. The collected lichens specimens were identified using standardized analytical techniques, significant lichen identification keys and monographs [44]–[47]. The thallus structure of all lichen species has been illustrated in Fig. 1. The data on morphological, anatomical, colorimetric and taxonomic charateristics recorded during the identification for fourteen lichen species have been depicted in Table 1 and Table 2. Wide variations in the parameters were observed among the investigated lichen species. Three lichen species additions viz. Lobothallia alphoplaca, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma and Xanthoparmelia mexicana were reported to the area near the northward slope of hill of Indus valley for the first time as per our previously reported work [35].


Antioxidant capacities, phenolic profile and cytotoxic effects of saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan cold desert of Ladakh.

Kumar J, Dhar P, Tayade AB, Gupta D, Chaurasia OP, Upreti DK, Arora R, Srivastava RB - PLoS ONE (2014)

Thallus of lichen species studied in the present investigation.a: Dermatocarpon vellereum; b: Umbilicaria vellea; c: Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca; d: Rhizoplaca melanophthalma; e: Pleopsidium flavum; f: Xanthoparmelia mexicana; g: Acarospora badiofusca; h: Xanthoria elegans; i: Lecanora frustulosa; j: Lobothallia alphoplaca; k: Physconia muscigena; l: Melanelia disjuncta; m: Xanthoparmelia stenophylla; n: Peccania coralloides.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4061001&req=5

pone-0098696-g001: Thallus of lichen species studied in the present investigation.a: Dermatocarpon vellereum; b: Umbilicaria vellea; c: Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca; d: Rhizoplaca melanophthalma; e: Pleopsidium flavum; f: Xanthoparmelia mexicana; g: Acarospora badiofusca; h: Xanthoria elegans; i: Lecanora frustulosa; j: Lobothallia alphoplaca; k: Physconia muscigena; l: Melanelia disjuncta; m: Xanthoparmelia stenophylla; n: Peccania coralloides.
Mentions: In the present study lichen specimens were collected from Chang-La Top of Changthang valley and northward slope of hill of Indus valley, Ladakh, India. The collected lichens specimens were identified using standardized analytical techniques, significant lichen identification keys and monographs [44]–[47]. The thallus structure of all lichen species has been illustrated in Fig. 1. The data on morphological, anatomical, colorimetric and taxonomic charateristics recorded during the identification for fourteen lichen species have been depicted in Table 1 and Table 2. Wide variations in the parameters were observed among the investigated lichen species. Three lichen species additions viz. Lobothallia alphoplaca, Rhizoplaca melanophthalma and Xanthoparmelia mexicana were reported to the area near the northward slope of hill of Indus valley for the first time as per our previously reported work [35].

Bottom Line: The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action.The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol.Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used as natural antioxidants for stress related problems.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Defence Research & Development Organisation, Leh-Ladakh, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

ABSTRACT
Fourteen saxicolous lichens from trans-Himalayan Ladakh region were identified by morpho-anatomical and chemical characteristics. The n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of the lichens were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities. The lichen extracts showing high antioxidant capacities and rich phenolic content were further investigated to determine their cytotoxic activity on human HepG2 and RKO carcinoma cell lines. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging capacities and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching property exhibited analogous results where the lichen extracts showed high antioxidant action. The lichen extracts were also found to possess good amount of total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol. The methanolic extract of Lobothallia alphoplaca exhibited highest FRAP value. Methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia stenophylla showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging capacity. The n-hexane extract of Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca exhibited highest DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Highest antioxidant capacity in terms of β-carotene linoleic acid bleaching property was observed in the water extract of Xanthoria elegans. Similarly, Melanelia disjuncta water extract showed highest NO scavenging capacity. Among n-hexane, methanol and water extracts of all lichens, the methanolic extract of Xanthoparmelia mexicana showed highest total proanthocyanidin, flavonoid and polyphenol content. From cytotoxic assay, it was observed that the methanolic extracts of L. alphoplaca and M. disjuncta were exhibiting high cytotoxic effects against cancer cell growth. Similarly, the water extract of Dermatocarpon vellereum, Umbilicaria vellea, X. elegans and M. disjuncta and the methanolic extract of M. disjuncta and X. stenophylla were found to possess high antioxidant capacities and were non-toxic and may be used as natural antioxidants for stress related problems. Our studies go on to prove that the unique trans-Himalayan lichens are a hitherto untapped bioresource with immense potential for discovery of new chemical entities, and this biodiversity needs to be tapped sustainably.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus