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Where's Waldo? How perceptual, cognitive, and emotional brain processes cooperate during learning to categorize and find desired objects in a cluttered scene.

Chang HC, Grossberg S, Cao Y - Front Integr Neurosci (2014)

Bottom Line: What stream cognitive-emotional learning processes enable the focusing of motivated attention upon the invariant object categories of desired objects.A volitional signal can convert these primes into top-down activations that can, in turn, prime What stream view- and positionally-specific categories.These processes describe interactions among brain regions that include visual cortex, parietal cortex, inferotemporal cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, basal ganglia (BG), and superior colliculus (SC).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Program in Cognitive and Neural Systems, Department of Mathematics, Center for Adaptive Systems, Center for Computational Neuroscience and Neural Technology, Boston University Boston, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
The Where's Waldo problem concerns how individuals can rapidly learn to search a scene to detect, attend, recognize, and look at a valued target object in it. This article develops the ARTSCAN Search neural model to clarify how brain mechanisms across the What and Where cortical streams are coordinated to solve the Where's Waldo problem. The What stream learns positionally-invariant object representations, whereas the Where stream controls positionally-selective spatial and action representations. The model overcomes deficiencies of these computationally complementary properties through What and Where stream interactions. Where stream processes of spatial attention and predictive eye movement control modulate What stream processes whereby multiple view- and positionally-specific object categories are learned and associatively linked to view- and positionally-invariant object categories through bottom-up and attentive top-down interactions. Gain fields control the coordinate transformations that enable spatial attention and predictive eye movements to carry out this role. What stream cognitive-emotional learning processes enable the focusing of motivated attention upon the invariant object categories of desired objects. What stream cognitive names or motivational drives can prime a view- and positionally-invariant object category of a desired target object. A volitional signal can convert these primes into top-down activations that can, in turn, prime What stream view- and positionally-specific categories. When it also receives bottom-up activation from a target, such a positionally-specific category can cause an attentional shift in the Where stream to the positional representation of the target, and an eye movement can then be elicited to foveate it. These processes describe interactions among brain regions that include visual cortex, parietal cortex, inferotemporal cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, basal ganglia (BG), and superior colliculus (SC).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Reinforcement learning circuit of the CogEM model (Grossberg, 1971, 1975; Grossberg and Seidman, 2006). (A) Processing stages of invariant object category, object-value category, and drive representation (value category) representations. CS, conditioned stimuli; S, sensory representations; and M, motor representations. (B) Conditioned reinforcer learning enables sensory events to activate emotional reactions at drive representations. Incentive motivational learning enables emotions to generate a motivational set that biases the system to process information consistent with that emotion. Motor learning allows sensory and cognitive representations to generate actions. (C) Anatomical interpretations of the processing stages. [Adapted from Grossberg and Seidman (2006), Figures 4, 5, with permission].
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Figure 4: Reinforcement learning circuit of the CogEM model (Grossberg, 1971, 1975; Grossberg and Seidman, 2006). (A) Processing stages of invariant object category, object-value category, and drive representation (value category) representations. CS, conditioned stimuli; S, sensory representations; and M, motor representations. (B) Conditioned reinforcer learning enables sensory events to activate emotional reactions at drive representations. Incentive motivational learning enables emotions to generate a motivational set that biases the system to process information consistent with that emotion. Motor learning allows sensory and cognitive representations to generate actions. (C) Anatomical interpretations of the processing stages. [Adapted from Grossberg and Seidman (2006), Figures 4, 5, with permission].

Mentions: The activation of an invariant recognition category by pARTSCAN mechanisms does not reflect the current emotional value of the object. Augmenting pARTSCAN with a CogEM circuit for reinforcement learning and motivated attention enables activation of an invariant category that is currently valued to be amplified by motivational feedback from the reinforcement learning circuit (Figure 4). Then the additional mechanisms of the ARTSCAN Search What-to-Where stream interactions can locate this motivationally salient object.


Where's Waldo? How perceptual, cognitive, and emotional brain processes cooperate during learning to categorize and find desired objects in a cluttered scene.

Chang HC, Grossberg S, Cao Y - Front Integr Neurosci (2014)

Reinforcement learning circuit of the CogEM model (Grossberg, 1971, 1975; Grossberg and Seidman, 2006). (A) Processing stages of invariant object category, object-value category, and drive representation (value category) representations. CS, conditioned stimuli; S, sensory representations; and M, motor representations. (B) Conditioned reinforcer learning enables sensory events to activate emotional reactions at drive representations. Incentive motivational learning enables emotions to generate a motivational set that biases the system to process information consistent with that emotion. Motor learning allows sensory and cognitive representations to generate actions. (C) Anatomical interpretations of the processing stages. [Adapted from Grossberg and Seidman (2006), Figures 4, 5, with permission].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4060746&req=5

Figure 4: Reinforcement learning circuit of the CogEM model (Grossberg, 1971, 1975; Grossberg and Seidman, 2006). (A) Processing stages of invariant object category, object-value category, and drive representation (value category) representations. CS, conditioned stimuli; S, sensory representations; and M, motor representations. (B) Conditioned reinforcer learning enables sensory events to activate emotional reactions at drive representations. Incentive motivational learning enables emotions to generate a motivational set that biases the system to process information consistent with that emotion. Motor learning allows sensory and cognitive representations to generate actions. (C) Anatomical interpretations of the processing stages. [Adapted from Grossberg and Seidman (2006), Figures 4, 5, with permission].
Mentions: The activation of an invariant recognition category by pARTSCAN mechanisms does not reflect the current emotional value of the object. Augmenting pARTSCAN with a CogEM circuit for reinforcement learning and motivated attention enables activation of an invariant category that is currently valued to be amplified by motivational feedback from the reinforcement learning circuit (Figure 4). Then the additional mechanisms of the ARTSCAN Search What-to-Where stream interactions can locate this motivationally salient object.

Bottom Line: What stream cognitive-emotional learning processes enable the focusing of motivated attention upon the invariant object categories of desired objects.A volitional signal can convert these primes into top-down activations that can, in turn, prime What stream view- and positionally-specific categories.These processes describe interactions among brain regions that include visual cortex, parietal cortex, inferotemporal cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, basal ganglia (BG), and superior colliculus (SC).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Program in Cognitive and Neural Systems, Department of Mathematics, Center for Adaptive Systems, Center for Computational Neuroscience and Neural Technology, Boston University Boston, MA, USA.

ABSTRACT
The Where's Waldo problem concerns how individuals can rapidly learn to search a scene to detect, attend, recognize, and look at a valued target object in it. This article develops the ARTSCAN Search neural model to clarify how brain mechanisms across the What and Where cortical streams are coordinated to solve the Where's Waldo problem. The What stream learns positionally-invariant object representations, whereas the Where stream controls positionally-selective spatial and action representations. The model overcomes deficiencies of these computationally complementary properties through What and Where stream interactions. Where stream processes of spatial attention and predictive eye movement control modulate What stream processes whereby multiple view- and positionally-specific object categories are learned and associatively linked to view- and positionally-invariant object categories through bottom-up and attentive top-down interactions. Gain fields control the coordinate transformations that enable spatial attention and predictive eye movements to carry out this role. What stream cognitive-emotional learning processes enable the focusing of motivated attention upon the invariant object categories of desired objects. What stream cognitive names or motivational drives can prime a view- and positionally-invariant object category of a desired target object. A volitional signal can convert these primes into top-down activations that can, in turn, prime What stream view- and positionally-specific categories. When it also receives bottom-up activation from a target, such a positionally-specific category can cause an attentional shift in the Where stream to the positional representation of the target, and an eye movement can then be elicited to foveate it. These processes describe interactions among brain regions that include visual cortex, parietal cortex, inferotemporal cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, basal ganglia (BG), and superior colliculus (SC).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus