Limits...
Biodiesel from Citrullus colocynthis oil: sulfonic-ionic liquid-catalyzed esterification of a two-step process.

Ali Elsheikh Y, Hassan Akhtar F - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: Based on the results, 3.6 wt% of DSIMHSO4, methanol/CCO molar ratio of 12 : 1, and 150 °C offered a final FFA conversion of 95.4% within 105 min.A 98.2% was produced via second KOH-catalyzed step in 1.0%, 6 : 1 molar ratio, 600 rpm, and 60 °C for 50 min.This new two-step catalyzed process could solve the corrosion and environmental problems associated with the current acidic catalysts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 344, Rabigh, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Biodiesel was prepared from Citrullus colocynthis oil (CCO) via a two-step process. The first esterification step was explored in two ionic liquids (ILs) with 1,3-disulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (DSIMHSO4) and 3-methyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (MSIMHSO4). Both ILs appeared to be good candidates to replace hazardous acidic catalyst due to their exceptional properties. However, the two sulfonic chains existing in DSIMHSO4 were found to increase the acidity to the IL than the single sulfonic chain in MSIMHSO4. Based on the results, 3.6 wt% of DSIMHSO4, methanol/CCO molar ratio of 12 : 1, and 150 °C offered a final FFA conversion of 95.4% within 105 min. A 98.2% was produced via second KOH-catalyzed step in 1.0%, 6 : 1 molar ratio, 600 rpm, and 60 °C for 50 min. This new two-step catalyzed process could solve the corrosion and environmental problems associated with the current acidic catalysts.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Recovered DSIMHSO4 after the 8th run for esterification reaction.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4060741&req=5

fig16: Recovered DSIMHSO4 after the 8th run for esterification reaction.

Mentions: After the last run of the transesterification reactions, the CCOME sample and the recovered DSIMHSO4 were investigated by 1H NMR to check the purity of biodiesel, that is, no traces of IL left, and to check the efficiency of the method used for purifying the IL. Figures 15 and 16 presented the proton NMR results for the biodiesel achieved after the 8th run and the DSIMHSO4 after it has been recovered after the same run, respectively.


Biodiesel from Citrullus colocynthis oil: sulfonic-ionic liquid-catalyzed esterification of a two-step process.

Ali Elsheikh Y, Hassan Akhtar F - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Recovered DSIMHSO4 after the 8th run for esterification reaction.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4060741&req=5

fig16: Recovered DSIMHSO4 after the 8th run for esterification reaction.
Mentions: After the last run of the transesterification reactions, the CCOME sample and the recovered DSIMHSO4 were investigated by 1H NMR to check the purity of biodiesel, that is, no traces of IL left, and to check the efficiency of the method used for purifying the IL. Figures 15 and 16 presented the proton NMR results for the biodiesel achieved after the 8th run and the DSIMHSO4 after it has been recovered after the same run, respectively.

Bottom Line: Based on the results, 3.6 wt% of DSIMHSO4, methanol/CCO molar ratio of 12 : 1, and 150 °C offered a final FFA conversion of 95.4% within 105 min.A 98.2% was produced via second KOH-catalyzed step in 1.0%, 6 : 1 molar ratio, 600 rpm, and 60 °C for 50 min.This new two-step catalyzed process could solve the corrosion and environmental problems associated with the current acidic catalysts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 344, Rabigh, Saudi Arabia.

ABSTRACT
Biodiesel was prepared from Citrullus colocynthis oil (CCO) via a two-step process. The first esterification step was explored in two ionic liquids (ILs) with 1,3-disulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (DSIMHSO4) and 3-methyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (MSIMHSO4). Both ILs appeared to be good candidates to replace hazardous acidic catalyst due to their exceptional properties. However, the two sulfonic chains existing in DSIMHSO4 were found to increase the acidity to the IL than the single sulfonic chain in MSIMHSO4. Based on the results, 3.6 wt% of DSIMHSO4, methanol/CCO molar ratio of 12 : 1, and 150 °C offered a final FFA conversion of 95.4% within 105 min. A 98.2% was produced via second KOH-catalyzed step in 1.0%, 6 : 1 molar ratio, 600 rpm, and 60 °C for 50 min. This new two-step catalyzed process could solve the corrosion and environmental problems associated with the current acidic catalysts.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus