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The dynamic relationship between plant architecture and competition.

Ford ED - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: Group 5: mortality is a time-delayed response to suppression.Development of architectural models when combined with field investigations is identifying research needed to develop a theory of architectural influences on the competition process.These include analyses of the integration of foliage and branch components into whole-plant growth and precise definitions of environmental control of morphogenetic plasticity and its interaction with acquisition of carbon for plant growth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Forest Science, University of Washington Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In this review, structural and functional changes are described in single-species, even-aged, stands undergoing competition for light. Theories of the competition process as interactions between whole plants have been advanced but have not been successful in explaining these changes and how they vary between species or growing conditions. This task now falls to researchers in plant architecture. Research in plant architecture has defined three important functions of individual plants that determine the process of canopy development and competition: (i) resource acquisition plasticity; (ii) morphogenetic plasticity; (iii) architectural variation in efficiency of interception and utilization of light. In this review, this research is synthesized into a theory for competition based on five groups of postulates about the functioning of plants in stands. Group 1: competition for light takes place at the level of component foliage and branches. Group 2: the outcome of competition is determined by the dynamic interaction between processes that exert dominance and processes that react to suppression. Group 3: species differences may affect both exertion of dominance and reaction to suppression. Group 4: individual plants may simultaneously exhibit, in different component parts, resource acquisition and morphogenetic plasticity. Group 5: mortality is a time-delayed response to suppression. Development of architectural models when combined with field investigations is identifying research needed to develop a theory of architectural influences on the competition process. These include analyses of the integration of foliage and branch components into whole-plant growth and precise definitions of environmental control of morphogenetic plasticity and its interaction with acquisition of carbon for plant growth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bivariate distributions of height and weight on the same arbitrary scales for a developing population over two time periods, A the younger stage, and B (based on Turley and Ford, 2011). The distributions are represented by density estimations using kernel smoothing (Wand and Jones, 1995). Both distributions show distinct bimodality. At stage A, small-sized plants are the major mode. During the period of growth between A and B, some 60% of total plants died reducing the number of plants in the small-sized mode.
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Figure 2: Bivariate distributions of height and weight on the same arbitrary scales for a developing population over two time periods, A the younger stage, and B (based on Turley and Ford, 2011). The distributions are represented by density estimations using kernel smoothing (Wand and Jones, 1995). Both distributions show distinct bimodality. At stage A, small-sized plants are the major mode. During the period of growth between A and B, some 60% of total plants died reducing the number of plants in the small-sized mode.

Mentions: The process outlined in Figure 1 results in larger plants having higher RGR and can cause formation of a distinct upper canopy and a bimodal frequency distribution of plant weights and heights (Figure 2). Detection of these features requires precision in measurement and analysis, and a population of sufficient size to avoid type II statistical errors. Such analyses could be used to define the effects of architecture on stand structure and productivity. For example, Vega and Sadras (2003) explicitly suggest that high productivity is associated with lack of bimodality in size–frequency distributions. Modal analysis can be made using the methods of Fraley et al. (2012).


The dynamic relationship between plant architecture and competition.

Ford ED - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bivariate distributions of height and weight on the same arbitrary scales for a developing population over two time periods, A the younger stage, and B (based on Turley and Ford, 2011). The distributions are represented by density estimations using kernel smoothing (Wand and Jones, 1995). Both distributions show distinct bimodality. At stage A, small-sized plants are the major mode. During the period of growth between A and B, some 60% of total plants died reducing the number of plants in the small-sized mode.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4060642&req=5

Figure 2: Bivariate distributions of height and weight on the same arbitrary scales for a developing population over two time periods, A the younger stage, and B (based on Turley and Ford, 2011). The distributions are represented by density estimations using kernel smoothing (Wand and Jones, 1995). Both distributions show distinct bimodality. At stage A, small-sized plants are the major mode. During the period of growth between A and B, some 60% of total plants died reducing the number of plants in the small-sized mode.
Mentions: The process outlined in Figure 1 results in larger plants having higher RGR and can cause formation of a distinct upper canopy and a bimodal frequency distribution of plant weights and heights (Figure 2). Detection of these features requires precision in measurement and analysis, and a population of sufficient size to avoid type II statistical errors. Such analyses could be used to define the effects of architecture on stand structure and productivity. For example, Vega and Sadras (2003) explicitly suggest that high productivity is associated with lack of bimodality in size–frequency distributions. Modal analysis can be made using the methods of Fraley et al. (2012).

Bottom Line: Group 5: mortality is a time-delayed response to suppression.Development of architectural models when combined with field investigations is identifying research needed to develop a theory of architectural influences on the competition process.These include analyses of the integration of foliage and branch components into whole-plant growth and precise definitions of environmental control of morphogenetic plasticity and its interaction with acquisition of carbon for plant growth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Forest Science, University of Washington Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In this review, structural and functional changes are described in single-species, even-aged, stands undergoing competition for light. Theories of the competition process as interactions between whole plants have been advanced but have not been successful in explaining these changes and how they vary between species or growing conditions. This task now falls to researchers in plant architecture. Research in plant architecture has defined three important functions of individual plants that determine the process of canopy development and competition: (i) resource acquisition plasticity; (ii) morphogenetic plasticity; (iii) architectural variation in efficiency of interception and utilization of light. In this review, this research is synthesized into a theory for competition based on five groups of postulates about the functioning of plants in stands. Group 1: competition for light takes place at the level of component foliage and branches. Group 2: the outcome of competition is determined by the dynamic interaction between processes that exert dominance and processes that react to suppression. Group 3: species differences may affect both exertion of dominance and reaction to suppression. Group 4: individual plants may simultaneously exhibit, in different component parts, resource acquisition and morphogenetic plasticity. Group 5: mortality is a time-delayed response to suppression. Development of architectural models when combined with field investigations is identifying research needed to develop a theory of architectural influences on the competition process. These include analyses of the integration of foliage and branch components into whole-plant growth and precise definitions of environmental control of morphogenetic plasticity and its interaction with acquisition of carbon for plant growth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus