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The dynamic relationship between plant architecture and competition.

Ford ED - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: Group 5: mortality is a time-delayed response to suppression.Development of architectural models when combined with field investigations is identifying research needed to develop a theory of architectural influences on the competition process.These include analyses of the integration of foliage and branch components into whole-plant growth and precise definitions of environmental control of morphogenetic plasticity and its interaction with acquisition of carbon for plant growth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Forest Science, University of Washington Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In this review, structural and functional changes are described in single-species, even-aged, stands undergoing competition for light. Theories of the competition process as interactions between whole plants have been advanced but have not been successful in explaining these changes and how they vary between species or growing conditions. This task now falls to researchers in plant architecture. Research in plant architecture has defined three important functions of individual plants that determine the process of canopy development and competition: (i) resource acquisition plasticity; (ii) morphogenetic plasticity; (iii) architectural variation in efficiency of interception and utilization of light. In this review, this research is synthesized into a theory for competition based on five groups of postulates about the functioning of plants in stands. Group 1: competition for light takes place at the level of component foliage and branches. Group 2: the outcome of competition is determined by the dynamic interaction between processes that exert dominance and processes that react to suppression. Group 3: species differences may affect both exertion of dominance and reaction to suppression. Group 4: individual plants may simultaneously exhibit, in different component parts, resource acquisition and morphogenetic plasticity. Group 5: mortality is a time-delayed response to suppression. Development of architectural models when combined with field investigations is identifying research needed to develop a theory of architectural influences on the competition process. These include analyses of the integration of foliage and branch components into whole-plant growth and precise definitions of environmental control of morphogenetic plasticity and its interaction with acquisition of carbon for plant growth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Development of population and stand structure in T. patula planted in a 2 cm triangular lattice (after Turley and Ford, 2011). (A) Plant height after 42 and 56 days showing large (C, D) and small (A, C) plants aligned on a 2 cm scale with diagrammatic reductions in PAR, and red and far-red light. New foliage grows upwards and away from the stem so that competitive interaction takes place in three dimensions. (B) Frequency histograms of plant dry weight at 42 and 56 days illustrating reduction in total number from 400 plants and right-skewed distributions. (C) The spatial arrangement of large and small plants, represented by black circles of their respective sizes at the lattice points and dead plants indicated by +. Plants A, B, and C are each one of a pair of large plants that are within 2 cm of each other, whereas other large plants are further than 2 cm from a large neighbor.
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Figure 1: Development of population and stand structure in T. patula planted in a 2 cm triangular lattice (after Turley and Ford, 2011). (A) Plant height after 42 and 56 days showing large (C, D) and small (A, C) plants aligned on a 2 cm scale with diagrammatic reductions in PAR, and red and far-red light. New foliage grows upwards and away from the stem so that competitive interaction takes place in three dimensions. (B) Frequency histograms of plant dry weight at 42 and 56 days illustrating reduction in total number from 400 plants and right-skewed distributions. (C) The spatial arrangement of large and small plants, represented by black circles of their respective sizes at the lattice points and dead plants indicated by +. Plants A, B, and C are each one of a pair of large plants that are within 2 cm of each other, whereas other large plants are further than 2 cm from a large neighbor.

Mentions: Size–frequency distributions of individuals within a stand are weak descriptors of competition because they do not identify the processes that contribute to stand development. As competition occurs, the frequency distribution of plant weights becomes right-skewed (Figure 1B), i.e., there are more smaller than large plants, originally described as log-normal by Koyama and Kira (1956). The right-skewed characteristic can be described by the Gini coefficient (Weiner and Solbrig, 1984): the differences between the weight of each of the n individuals, x, and all others are summed (numerator) and then averaged (denominator)


The dynamic relationship between plant architecture and competition.

Ford ED - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Development of population and stand structure in T. patula planted in a 2 cm triangular lattice (after Turley and Ford, 2011). (A) Plant height after 42 and 56 days showing large (C, D) and small (A, C) plants aligned on a 2 cm scale with diagrammatic reductions in PAR, and red and far-red light. New foliage grows upwards and away from the stem so that competitive interaction takes place in three dimensions. (B) Frequency histograms of plant dry weight at 42 and 56 days illustrating reduction in total number from 400 plants and right-skewed distributions. (C) The spatial arrangement of large and small plants, represented by black circles of their respective sizes at the lattice points and dead plants indicated by +. Plants A, B, and C are each one of a pair of large plants that are within 2 cm of each other, whereas other large plants are further than 2 cm from a large neighbor.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4060642&req=5

Figure 1: Development of population and stand structure in T. patula planted in a 2 cm triangular lattice (after Turley and Ford, 2011). (A) Plant height after 42 and 56 days showing large (C, D) and small (A, C) plants aligned on a 2 cm scale with diagrammatic reductions in PAR, and red and far-red light. New foliage grows upwards and away from the stem so that competitive interaction takes place in three dimensions. (B) Frequency histograms of plant dry weight at 42 and 56 days illustrating reduction in total number from 400 plants and right-skewed distributions. (C) The spatial arrangement of large and small plants, represented by black circles of their respective sizes at the lattice points and dead plants indicated by +. Plants A, B, and C are each one of a pair of large plants that are within 2 cm of each other, whereas other large plants are further than 2 cm from a large neighbor.
Mentions: Size–frequency distributions of individuals within a stand are weak descriptors of competition because they do not identify the processes that contribute to stand development. As competition occurs, the frequency distribution of plant weights becomes right-skewed (Figure 1B), i.e., there are more smaller than large plants, originally described as log-normal by Koyama and Kira (1956). The right-skewed characteristic can be described by the Gini coefficient (Weiner and Solbrig, 1984): the differences between the weight of each of the n individuals, x, and all others are summed (numerator) and then averaged (denominator)

Bottom Line: Group 5: mortality is a time-delayed response to suppression.Development of architectural models when combined with field investigations is identifying research needed to develop a theory of architectural influences on the competition process.These include analyses of the integration of foliage and branch components into whole-plant growth and precise definitions of environmental control of morphogenetic plasticity and its interaction with acquisition of carbon for plant growth.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Environmental and Forest Science, University of Washington Seattle, WA, USA.

ABSTRACT
In this review, structural and functional changes are described in single-species, even-aged, stands undergoing competition for light. Theories of the competition process as interactions between whole plants have been advanced but have not been successful in explaining these changes and how they vary between species or growing conditions. This task now falls to researchers in plant architecture. Research in plant architecture has defined three important functions of individual plants that determine the process of canopy development and competition: (i) resource acquisition plasticity; (ii) morphogenetic plasticity; (iii) architectural variation in efficiency of interception and utilization of light. In this review, this research is synthesized into a theory for competition based on five groups of postulates about the functioning of plants in stands. Group 1: competition for light takes place at the level of component foliage and branches. Group 2: the outcome of competition is determined by the dynamic interaction between processes that exert dominance and processes that react to suppression. Group 3: species differences may affect both exertion of dominance and reaction to suppression. Group 4: individual plants may simultaneously exhibit, in different component parts, resource acquisition and morphogenetic plasticity. Group 5: mortality is a time-delayed response to suppression. Development of architectural models when combined with field investigations is identifying research needed to develop a theory of architectural influences on the competition process. These include analyses of the integration of foliage and branch components into whole-plant growth and precise definitions of environmental control of morphogenetic plasticity and its interaction with acquisition of carbon for plant growth.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus